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concerns a possible connection between a sociology of the literary (field) and a literary (text) sociology: If the struggles for a position in the literary field shape a literary text so that literary criticism can overcome “the opposition between internal analysis (text) and external analysis (context)” (Bourdieu, “Passport” 245), how does that shape the text’s vision of the social? Will the vision be particular- ly acute or will there be blind spots depending on the struggles – or are these two possible ways to use Bourdieu for literary analysis separate from

’s content and form. We can also note that the insertion of Stefans’ work in a specific, existing poetical tradition has divided critics’ minds. Whereas Edward Picot does not consider The Dreamlife of Letters as an avant-garde work (“Hyperliterature as a Product?”), James Mitchell argues that the methods of traditional literary analysis would not be effective to interpret this poem: its form is pertinently changing without the possibility for the reader to intervene (“A Modest ‘Electronic’ Proposal”). According to Marjorie Perloff, Stefans’ poem should be considered

literally devour an enemy perceived to be superior as a means of taking possession of his strength, enabling them to then face up to him as a confident opponent on an equal footing.30 Cannibalism serves here, as Robert Stam has observed, as a metaphor for “a carnivalized response to cultural colonialism:”31 “The special relevance of Bakhtin’s notion of the carniva- lesque for Brazil goes beyond literary analysis and production, however, for in Brazil the idea of carnival has formed an integral part of the very ‘theorization’ of national identity and culture.”32 De

‘multiplication’ of approaches in cultural history more generally. Historians in- terested in ‘history from below’ and micro-history have worked with deeply bi- ased sources for several decades, for example, with court and inquisition records. Since the seventies, they have developed alternative methods of interpretation like the reading of sources “against the grain” (Ginzburg) or reading more or less “fictional” accounts with the tools of literary analysis (Davis, Fiction). In Ger- many, alternative ways of bringing out multiple stories from biased sources have also begun

stories: “The scenario includes features well theorized in literary analysis, such as narrative and plot, but demands that we also pay attention to milieux and corporeal behavior such as gestures, attitudes, and tones not reducible to language” (ibid.). Of course, the sugar-made Kremlin is fictive and can be consumed in different ways, with the narrative being just one aspect. Language itself is lacking and behavior and bodily sedimented cultural knowledge can only be observed or sensed, but it is present when the Kremlin made of sugar is consumed or talked

/superstructure dualism by reviving a misplaced economism that may eventu- ally downplay sexism, misogyny, racism, or xenophobia – rendering them as mere ‘side contradictions’ supposedly less important than the real antagonism between capital and labor. And even worse: Would such a reasoning not also return to an outmoded way of ‘symptomatic reading,’ disregarding the claims of contemporary theorists who advise us that cultural and literary analysis should operate ‘close but not deep’ (cf. Love 2009) and pay special attention to the ‘surface’ (rather than the ‘depth’) of our objects of

forgetting it, but rather returning to it a newly 3 For a comprehensive cultural analysis of this, see Gutiérrez Rodríguez 1999; for a literary analysis, see Adelson 2005; and for a detailed historical overview, see: Chin 2007. INTRODUCTION | 21 spatialized way,” that is, a locationally-specic way (ibid: 18). Focusing on the links between the Anglo-American and the German feminist de- bate, Gudrun-Axeli Knapp has refererred to this locational return as a form of “reclaiming baggage” which she describes as “a time

uncertainty and the problem of identity crisis, expressed through the discourse of difference, and it seems far from coincidence that all these books were produced and published during the same decade. Reading these texts alongside each other rather than using the one to analyse the other opens up a particularly fruitful way of doing inter- textual research in the field of literary and cultural studies. Secondly, by combining literary analysis with sociological thinking, I not only 12 Derrida was very reluctant to propose a clear-cut definition of decon- struction

culture. Relatively independent from French and American semiotics, this school melted sign theory with cybernetics, information theory and formalism (Eimermacher 1986). The two works, which are most rele- vant in the context of spatial rhetoric, are Universe of Mind, where Lotman devel- oped a semiotic theory of culture, and The Structure of the Artistic Text, where he explained his spatial take on literary analysis. For Game Studies, Lotman is not only of interest because he developed a spa- tial narratology, but also because of his theory of play. Similar to

identity, community and incorporations of immigrants into the city’s and nation’s society prevail. Even within a novel, different ideologies exist, coexist, and sometimes clash. With the help of the poetics of narrative, place, and code-switching, the different concepts of cultures and their mixing, coexistence, or coercion will be analyzed. Thus, before the literary analysis, the basic features of comparison will be identified in the following chapter.