the atrocities of the terrorist actions«.
I want to suggest that this is, at best, only partly true and that in the
main music carried on many of its traditional roles. As Forman himself
notes, music was soon »employed spontaneously in countless healings and
public vigils and public demonstrations and in highly organized media mega-
events« (ibid.: 191).
I want further to suggest that one of the key roles which it continued to
play was that of shaping and informing national identities. The key thing
which changed here was the politics around such formulations
importance are their reasons for having come to Europe in the first place.
These depend on historical and political conditions at home and in Europe.
For many years – and even up to today – the colonial past was a decisive
factor for a positive or negative choice when deciding to migrate to a
particular European state.
THE DISCOURSE OF ‘BLACKNESS’
Another initial observation must be made: there are immigrants who are
musicians before they arrive in Europe, and there are those who become
musicians on their arrival or after.
Some of the contributors
toward a trans-
national European music history are clearly recognizable among the generation of
German musicologists that started their careers after 1945. By no coincidence, in
the same years a similar aim shaped the political agenda of the treaties of Paris,
Rome, and Maastricht, as part of the European integration project. Dahlhaus,
2 As will become clear below this paper is an attempt to re-write and deconstruct Dahl-
haus’s article from 1984 (see also Janz 2016a).
282 | Tobias JANZ
Creating New Representations of Yugoslav
Dragotin Gostuški's Symphonic Poem Beograd
In the following I will discuss symphonic poem Beograd (»Belgrade«) com-
posed by Serbian author Dragutin Gostuški in 1951, and afterwards used for а
musical »documentary television film« in 1969, in the context of the processes
of building new representations of the state territory of socialist Yugoslavia. I
will firstly discuss the particular political and social issues of territorial trans-
formation in the early socialist
single word »documentary« in Wikipedia, itself a
reflection of popular attitudes and ideas about culture, one receives results only for the
visual media. It is even more curious that while the definitions of visual documentary
use terminology such as »factual«, »informative« and so on, the Wikipedia item on
radio documentary associates it with drama and notions of performance.
One explanation for this may be that in the UK, for instance, governments were anxious
that the BBC, a publicly funded broadcaster, should as far as possible be non-political:
also emulated in Hungary. The local communist government identified this
policy as the only model for Hungarian musical politics and ideology. It can
already be documented, however, that nobody gave exact orders or analyzed in
what manner this model should properly be followed. In my chapter I argue that
the so-called musical revolution and the transformation of musical life according
to Zhdanovian socialist realist principles was a rather arbitrary and improvised
initiative, in which Hungarian policy makers and musical experts often used the
Soviet ideas and
similar lines, it was revealed through more interviews with
musicmakers that Montreal figured into musicmaking as a kind of bohemian
enclave, one in which musical activity could flourish (Stahl 2001). Patti's
comment is a typical reading of Montreal among musicmakers, evoking an
implicit political economy of the scene by linking the ambience of the city's
vibrant alternative cultural life to its diminished economic state, a place-
image of the city as a haven for artists which has been a durable trope for
more than 150 years. In a city of limited ambitions, an
still considered a
concrete, easily discernible empirical object: with a live event or the recording of
an event serving as the basic u
nit of investigation. The emphasis on a concrete event – where music self-
evidently is performance – often abets obsolete, positivist empiricisms and
leaves the entanglement of a music event within wider social, political and cul-
tural processes of production, mediation and distribution of music mostly out of
the picture. For example, performance-oriented music studies emphasize the role
of performing individuals, as when
music or content, thereby asserting the privacy of their sonic space through an act
of consumption. In a way, Hagood is the Yang to Schafer’s Yin. Hagood presupposes
the implication of scholars in modern, cosmopolitan life: they are as implicated in the
desires behind noise-cancelling headphones as anyone else, carving out little, privatized
spaces of quietude to keep social difference at bay and provide a space of self-constitu-
tion. His analysis is grounded in the politics of social difference around gender, race and
class. Soundscaping is a lot of landscaping
. Italienischer Futurismus 1909-1918, Hannover,
Amin, Ash/Nigel Thrift 2002: Cities. Reimagining the Urban, Cambridge.
Amphoux, Pascal 1994: »Die Zeit der Stille. Urbanität und Sozialität«, in: Kunst- und
Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland GmbH (Hg.): Welt auf töner-
nen Füssen. Die Töne und das Hören, Göttingen, 86-99.
Appadurai, Arjun 1986: »Introduction. Commodities and the Politics of Value«,
in: Arjun Appadurai (Hg.): The Social Life of Things. Commodities in Cultural
Perspective, Cambridge, 3-63.
Appadurai, Arjun 1998: »Globale ethnische Räume