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Aspekte von Migration, untersucht also Wege und Formen der Aus- wanderung von Libanesen nach Europa, Amerika, nach Afrika und Australien seit dem 19. Jahrhundert bis in die Gegenwart. Nadim Sha- hade und Albert Hourani beschreiben in »Lebanese in the World: A Century of Migration« Fälle aus einer Vielzahl von Ländern, wobei sie persönliche Erfahrungsberichte mit soziologischen Analysen von Marginalität, sozialer Organisation und kultureller Auswirkung von Migration verknüpfen.7 Eine der umfassendsten historischen Unter- suchungen ist Akram Fouad Khaters »Inventing

Chapter 1 What does it take to cross a border? And what does it take to belong? Introduction Two questions—“What does it take to cross a border? And what does it take to belong?”—set the scene for this book, Resilient Bodies, Residual Effects: Artistic Articulations of Borders and Collectivity from Lebanon and Palestine. They drove and accompanied the research project, framing my own border experiences and spurring tentative and informal exchanges with the experiences of other border crossers. Rather than demanding quick or general answers

this study possible by providing financial support for the project in particular and the Graduate School in general. The dissertation was based on fourteen months of anthropological field- work in the South Lebanese village of Zrariye (June-December 1995 and March-August 1996) and its migrant community in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (January-February 1996). After leaving Graduate School and moving on to new research projects, I managed to return to the village at least once a year for various lengths of time between 1997 and 2002. At times I stayed only for a

.« (Marx 1844: 9) 1. INTRODUCTION Driven by the contradictions of capitalism, specifically fearing the loss of power, the bourgeois society seeks to delimit cultural, political and urban movements. It thus operates so as to reproduce the existing power dynamics, either with different people – still belonging to the same class – or with different slogans, maintaining its control, recycling the same modus operandi. In Lebanon, the process has primarily taken the form of civil society encroach- ment on social movements. Following the growing wave of demonstrations

Berücksichtigung der strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen „Being a Palestinian refugee in Lebanon means that you have a „lost ID“, a grandson of lost ID and a grandfather of lost ID.“ Samer Mannaa „To be a Palestinian in Leba- non!“ Im Kontext der Nakba kamen ungefähr 104.000 Palästinenser in den Libanon. 67 Dies entsprach im Verhältnis ca. einem Zehntel der damaligen Bevölkerung des Araber haben den Krieg begonnen“ oder „Die Palästinenser

from Level I to Level IV with a summary of the resulting categories and their interrelations at each Ievel. Conclusions are presented throughout the mentioned Ievels as weil as at the end. Level 1: The environment oftheater At Level I, the empirical work showed that the key to understanding theater in Lebanon is the multi-confessional environment in which it is rooted and whose social dramas it reflects. A short description ofthe en- vironment and the forces acting in it is therefore essential in the building of implications. Here, we encounter the classical

” by the Berkman Center for Internet and Democracy in 2009.33 The report is a quantitative study of the blogosphere based on a large social network analysis. Its main finding relevant for my work was that the blogosphere is organised along national borders with specific linking clusters. The study also provides a useful overview of blogging activities within these different national clusters.34 However, it does not provide insights into the dynamics of the respective localities. Two studies of the Lebanese case need to be mentioned: the first is Haugbolle

Mundial. Herausgegeben von World Lebanese Cultural 254 | ETHNISCHE SPHÄREN Union (WLCU). Online: http://www.wlcu.com/index.php?option=com_ content&task=view&id=559 (Stand: 28.09.2010). ASFOURA DE ADAD, OLGA LILIANA (2003): Tucumán (1900–1950). In: FUNDACIÓN LOS CEDROS (Hg.): Sirios, libaneses y argentinos. Fragmentos para una historia de la diversidad cultural argentina. Buenos Aires, S. 413– 422. ASOCIACIÓN DE BENEFICENCIA HOSPITAL SIRIO LIBANÉS (o. J.): Autoridades. Online: http://www.hospitalsiriolibanes.org/web/autoridades.html (Stand: 12.04.2011). AZIZE

basieren auf den Ergebnissen einer einjährigen Feldforschung, die ich 1995/1996 in Zrarie/Südlibanon und in Abidjan/Elfenbeinküste als Promotionsstipendiatin des Graduiertenkollegs »Markt, Staat, Ethnizität« des Forschungsschwerpunktes Entwicklungsso- ziologie und Sozialanthropologie (Fakultät für Soziologie, Universität Biele- feld) durchgeführt und in der Dissertation »Lebanese in Motion: The Making of a Gendered ›Globalized Village‹« (1998b) dargestellt habe. 5 Auch Frauen waren aktiv im Widerstand, sowohl in den linken Parteien als auch später in den religiösen

poorly translated food menu5 or a document about a Lebanese company that has been banned from several countries in the Gulf (Rami i2).6 Daily observations, a communication whether of- fline or online, an article read, a friend who tells a story or forwards a link – all this may end up in a blog post. A broader tendency is that all these various sources of ideas are closely interlinked with the daily life of the bloggers: things they stumble upon, read online or offline, hear from someone etc. This requires a constant state of awareness of what is going around