17 N.N.: Das therapeutische Spiel: Snow World, 2011, http://www.seriousgames-
18 Vgl. Holmes, Emily A. et al. »Can Playing the ComputerGame ›Tetris‹ Reduce the
Build-Up of Flashbacks for Trauma?«, in: A Proposal from Cognitive Science PLoS
ONE 4/1 (2010), http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.
19 Henry Mahne zitiert nach Zha, Weixin: »Computerspiele als Heilmittel : Playstation
statt Ritalin gegen ADHS«, in: Financial Times (2012), http
these questions have
varied over the last three decades of game design theory: From the first im-
portant publication, Chris Crawford’s The Art of ComputerGame Design
(1984)2, to the trio of books that are probably most influential in contemporary
game design and education: Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman’s Rules of Play:
Game Design Fundamentals (2003)3, Jesse Schell’s The Art of Game Design: A
1 Salen/Zimmerman: Eric: Rules of Play, loc. 186.
2 Crawford, Chris: The Art of ComputerGame Design
-Design-theoretischen Ansätze war und ist
die künstlerische Praxis, das heißt die Doppelfrage: »Was macht ein gutes Spiel
aus?« und »Wie macht man ein gutes Spiel?« In der Geschichte der Game-
Design-Theorie fielen die Antworten im Detail selbstredend unterschiedlich aus
– von der ersten bedeutenden Publikation, Chris Crawfords The Art of ComputerGame Design (1984)2, bis zu dem Trio der gegenwärtig in der Game-Design-
1 Salen/Zimmerman: Rules of Play, loc. 186.
2 Crawford, Chris: The Art of ComputerGame Design, Berkeley
viewers to dance; and Prue Lang transforms the space/
time of choreography via other means
Artworks involving dance and technologies do not always manifest in
performances for the stage, but may involve the audience as participants
or performers. These projects have tended until recently to be created by
those specializing in interactive media, but today one can point towards
choreographers who are blurring the boundaries of their disciplines by
making non-stage based, installation works.
Combining 3-D motion capture, computergaming environments and
Quandt, Wimmer, Wolling. 2008. Die Computerspieler: Studien zur Nutzung
von Computergames. VS Verlag
Raessens, Joost & Goldstein, Jeffrey (Hg). 2005. Handbook of computergame
studies. MIT press
Richard, Birgit. 2004. Sheroes. Genderspiele im virtuellen Raum. transcript Verlag
Riegraf, Spreen, Mehlmann. 2012. Medien – Körper – Geschlecht. Diskursivie-
rung von Materialität. Transcript Verlag
Rommes, Bos, Geerdink. 2011. Design and Use of Gender Specific and Gender
Sterotypical Toys. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology,
Vol 3. Nr 1.; Im
team of researchers comparing empirical material from a number
of subprojects as an ongoing part of the research process. My subproject was fo-
cused on an analysis and conceptualization of the basic social mechanisms which
enact in- and exclusion and bullying practices among children and young people.
Entangled in this focus, however, was an interest in the digital-analogue move-
ments and interactions of the children and young people and, among such move-
ments, their engagement, together or alone, with computergaming and digital play
with violence and
. Particularly when the computergame’s space
does not depict a real space, the question becomes relevant as to whether players
will be able to get their bearings, with their motivation and acceptance more or
All our observations are based on the assumption that a computergame must
establish its playability. This can be done inelegantly – as a break with the per-
fectly staged “anything-goes, make-believe world” – and rather obviously, such
as in P.T. before the player enters the loop: as if the staging of the entrance door
– solid, polished, illuminated
Ethics as a Game Mechanism
As the computergame matures and grows as an art form, the question of how
game designers can use ethics as a means of game motivation and thus also as a
means of game mechanics becomes increasingly important. The times when de-
signers could hide behind phrases like “It’s just a game” are a thing of the past.
For an art form that wants to be taken seriously, it is intellectually pathetic any-
When I started to approach the question, I quickly found out that we still
know far too little about whom the
commentary field of the
5 J. Newman: Playing with Videogames, pp. 160-161.
6 Laukkanen, Tero: Modding Scenes—Introduction to User-created Content in
ComputerGaming, Tampere: Tampere University 2005, pp. 30-59.
7 Champion, Erik: Game Mods. Design, Theory and Criticism, Pittsburgh, Pa.: ETC
Press 2012, p. 12.
8 Lowood, Henry: “High-Performance Play: The Making of Machinima,” in:
Clarke, Andy/Mitchell, Grethe (eds.), Videogames and Art, Chicago: Intellect
2007, pp. 59-79, here p. 60.
WE HAVE WON THIS BATTLE ;) | 289
Mods are sometimes modified
dass sich allenfalls historiographisch ausbuchstabieren ließe, was Henry Jen-
kins folgendermaßen konstatiert hat:
»Over the past three decades, computer and video games have progressed from the
primitive two-paddles-and-a-ball Pong to the sophistication of Final Fantasy, a partici-
patory story with cinema-quality graphics that unfolds over nearly 100 hours of game
play, or Black and White, an ambitious moral tale where the player’s god-like choices
between good and evil leave tangible marks on the landscape. The computergame has
been a killer app for the