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Genesis of World Society: Innovations and Mechanisms, Working paper des Instituts für Weltgesellschaft: Luzern. Stichweh, Rudolf (2004b): Inklusion und Exklusion. Studien zur Gesell- schaftstheorie, Bielefeld: transcript. Straub, Jürgen (1998): „Personale und kollektive Identität. Zur Analyse ei- nes theoretischen Begriffs“. In: Assmann, Aleida/Friese, Heidrun (Hg.), Identitäten. Erinnerung, Geschichte, Identität 3, Frankfurt (Main): Suhrkamp, S. 73–104. Straub, Jürgen/Renn, Joachim (Hg.) (2002): Transitorische Identität. Pro- zesscharakter des modernen Selbst

every control and guidance system was actually designed that way. Electronic games become a new kind of environment for the players, to which they hook up, become a part of and actively socialize in (as long as they abide by the rules). This is not much different from the socialization process in real-world society. 44 | René Bauer ANALOG LIFE IN GAME MECHANICS Computer games have playfully accompanied, inspired and asserted the trans- formation of our (economically oriented) society into a digital cybernetic and rule-based society. In electronic

-presentation: through art the subject practices self-objectivation and, thus, offers itself to approval or rejection by the world society. So, one could believe that in the age of the Internet the traditional art institutions—with all their rituals of selection and presentation—became obsolete. However, in our time one can see the growth of the museums of contem- porary art all over the world and one registers the fact that the public of the big exhibitions of contemporary art, such as Venice Biennale or Documenta in Kassel, is also permanently growing. Why is it so? If one

: Niklas Luhmann: Ausdifferenzierung des Rechts. Beiträge zur Rechtssoziologie und Rechtstheorie. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Luhmann, Niklas (1981f): Die Funktion des Rechts: Erwartungssicherung oder LITERATUR | 419 Verhaltenssteuerung? S. 73-91 in: Niklas Luhmann: Ausdifferenzierung des Rechts. Beiträge zur Rechtssoziologie und Rechtstheorie. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Luhmann, Niklas (1982): The World Society as a Social System. International Journal of General Systems 8: S. 131-138. Luhmann, Niklas (1984): Soziale Systeme. Grundriß einer allgemeinen

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Prüfstand. Hamburg Albert, Hans 1977: Individuelles Handeln und soziale Steuerung. In: Lenk, Hans (Hrsg.): Handlungstheorien interdisziplinär IV. München, S. 177-225 Albert, Mathias 1994: Postmoderne und Theorie der internationalen Beziehun- gen. In: Zeitschrift für Internationale Beziehungen, (1), H. 1, S. 45-63 Albert, Mathias/Hilkermeier, Lena 2001: Between Systems Theory and Neo- Institutionalism. Studying Regional Organization in World Society. In: http: //www.uni-bielefeld.de/soz/iw/pdf/albert_hilkermeier.pdf Alger, Chadwick F. 1994: Citizens and the UN System in a

Society; R. Steven Turner, “The Growth of Professorial Research in Prussia, 1818 to 1848 – Causes and Context”; Charles McClelland, State, Society, and University in Germany 1700- 1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008). 454 Rodolf Stichweh, Zur Entstehung des modernen Systems wissenschaftlicher Diszipli- nen – Physik in Deutschland 1740-1890 (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1984), Wissenschaft, Universität, Professionen. Soziologische Analysen (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1994), “Sci- ence in the System of World Society,” Social Science Information 35 (1996), “The His

actor-network theory, the Global South is a field of research, as at least some studies on Africa show which refer to the translation of concepts or travelling models (Behrends et al. 2014; Czarniawska and Sevón 1996). Another field where sociology has developed an interest beyond the Global North is neo-institutionalism with its concept of a ‘world society’ or ‘world polity’ (Drori et al., 2003; Meyer et al., 1997). This approach argues that the seemingly universal socio-political structures do not dominate simply because of their functionality, but are linked to

actors. Interestingly, in dominant security thinking the world tends to be imagined as highly globalized when it comes to the threats, which states in the “zone of peace” are facing, while causes for transnational activi- ties such as organized crime and terrorism are imagined to be rooted rather in non-Western states or regions, which belong to the “zone of turmoil.”5 This disre- gards that illegal practices are embedded into the same structures of world society that encompass the legal sides of politics and economy, and that both spheres are indissolubly tied

/Ethan Nadelmann: Policing the Globe. Criminaliza- tion and Crime Control in International Relations, Oxford etc.: Oxford University Press 2006 oder Mathieu Deflem: Policing World Society, New York: Oxford Uni- versity Press 2002. 15. DAS STAATLICHE GEWALTMONOPOL: INTERNATIONALISIERUNG OHNE POLITISIERUNG 229 multilaterale Kooperationsformen ein, in denen westeuropäische Staaten im Bereich der inneren Sicherheit zusammenarbeiten. Die unmittelbare Anwendung des Gewaltmonopols – etwa die Fest- nahme einer Person – ist nach wie vor die ausschließliche Domäne des Staates. Es wäre

whole (cf. e.g. Parsons 1967, 1971; Eisenstadt 2000); since globalization has been discussed as a new major social trend, the vanishing point of sociological macro-analysis in principle has been either to describe the current shape of world society or to describe and explain its emergence and implications (cf. e.g. Wallerstein 1979; Meyer et al. 1997). Finally, macro-entities are said to be constituted by “emergent properties” (cf. Etzioni 1970) that distinguish them from a mere accumulation of individuals. All this clearly indicates that ‘macro’ does not only