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* Email: annika.hampel@abi.uni-freiburg.de “Are You a Rafiki?” Report on the Workshop ‘The Role of Civil Society in Cultural Relations’ by the Academic Council for Culture and Foreign Policy (WIKA) at the Institute for International Cultural Relations (ifa), 26 September 2019 in Stuttgart/Germany ANNIKA HAMPEL* University of Freiburg In 2004, the Institute for International Cultural Relations (Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen/ifa) in Stuttgart (Germany) founded the Aca- demic Council on Culture and Foreign Policy (Wissenschaftlicher In- titiativkreis

Besucherforschung im Kulturmanagement Ergebnisse aus dem 3. Workshop der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Methoden der empirischen (Kulturnutzer-)Forschung des Fachverbands für Kulturmanagement am 14. Februar 2020 in Berlin THOMAS RENZ, VERA ALLMANRITTER 197 “Are You a Rafiki?” Report on the Workshop ‘The Role of Civil Society in Cultural Relations’ by the Academic Council for Culture and Foreign Policy (WIKA) at the Institute for International Cultural Relations (ifa), 26 September 2019 in Stuttgart/Germany. ANNIKA HAMPEL 201 Reviews / Rezensionen Editor

situation, debates reform logjams and presents courses of action that also illuminate the role of the ‘Länder’ (federal states) and especially the situation in Thuringia. It argues for a system to better interlock all levels of cultural policy, and advocates a more concept­based work approach. Ultimately, it offers some theses on the new Thuringian Cultural Concept. MONIKA MOKRE Kulturpolitik in der Demokratie / Cultural Politics in Democracy Kulturpolitik – Recht – Staat – Zivilgesellschaft – Kulturfinanzierung cultural politics – law – state – civil society

’ empowerment, freedom of ex- pression and artistic integrity, the contact between arts practitioners and the civil society and the role of flexibility in the rapidly changing global circumstances (Council of the European Union 2017).6 The New European Agenda for Culture was introduced in 2018 with an aim to “harness the full potential of culture to help build a more inclusive and fairer Union, supporting innovation, creativity and sustainable jobs and 5 See <www.moreeurope.org/?q=content/eu-council-conclusions-eu-strategic-approach -international

und Gesellschaft dürften vor allem folgende Artikel auf Interesse stoßen: • Naomi Miyamoto: Concerts and the Public Sphere in Civil Society Through Rethinking Habermas’s Concept of Representative Public­ KAREN VAN DEN BERG, TASOS ZEMBYLAS150 ness (44/2, 2013, S. 101­118). Die Autorin betrachtet Musikkonzerte als Öffentlichkeitsforen und die Konzertbesucher als Publikum im Sinne der Theorie der Öffentlichkeit von J. Habermas. Dabei richtet sich ihre Frage auf die Repräsentation im 19. Jahrhundert. • José María Peñalver Vilar, Amparo Porta und Remigi Morant

changed the power structure of Baltimore’s art institutions by making smaller arts venues and artists important for the city. In 2010 the term ‘network’ took on once again another meaning. Now it referred to a net­ work of non-profit civil society institutions supporting the many local artists in innovative and informal arts scenes. It meant an acknowledged source for the creative rejuvenation of local arts productions, and for a new policy promoting a creative city catalyzed by the arts. Interestingly enough, some codes that were exceptionally important in one

development. An incipient process in considering cultural policies for promoting more attractive and livable cities has emerged in Kazakhstan since its split from the Soviet Union, but its progress is one of non-integrated paths. This is due to the absence of civil society, low involvement of the business community in tourism growth, and strong dependence on the centralized government for funding. Although policy makers have previously worked on creative city design, a lack of coherence in im- plementation and a lack of unity in conveying meaning to urban developers

dessen, was „Regierung für das Volk“ bedeutet. Der zweite Teil des Artikels analysiert unterschiedliche Formen der Finanzierung von Kunst und Kultur aus demokratiepolitischer Sicht – Finanzierung durch die öffent­ liche Hand, Mäzenatentum und Sponsoring, Crowdfunding, Kultur­ und Kreativwirt­ schaft – und konfrontiert auf diese Weise die demokratietheoretischen Überlegungen des ersten Teils mit kulturpolitischer Praxis. Keywords Kulturpolitik – Recht – Staat – Zivilgesellschaft – Kulturfinanzierung cultural politics – law – state – civil society – cultural

development planning processes throughout Germany in recent years (FÖHL/SIEV­ ERS 2013). Furthermore, there are cultural development processes go­ ing on in many other countries as well (e.g., China, Egypt, USA and many other European countries). Public funding is still a fundamental source for artists and cultural institutions in order to survive but the state can­ not support the whole cultural infrastructure on its own. The hope lies in a better coordination with other societal fields such as the market (econ­ omy and tourism) and the civil society (e.g. local heroes

character that turns ideas and hobbies into activities of quasi­professional standard. Especially in the arts, pro­ams are numerous and carry a significant potential for social participation and innovation. This essay reflects on how cultural managers could take a role in recognizing, promoting and fostering the pro­am potential in the arts and in society. Keywords Diversity, International, civil society, artists, management 1. Background The boundary between professionals and amateurs simultaneously drives and divides the world of knowledge and artistic expression