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Table of Contents Acknowledgements | 7 1. Introduction: The Nature of Myth and Mythological Resignification | 9 THE PUSHING OF HORIZONS 2. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter and the Opening of Fences | 33 2.1 From Crime to Heresy: The New England Witch as Transgressor | 34 2.2 Puritan Fathers and the Treatment of Dissent | 42 2.3 The Order of Roses | 62 2.4 The Recuperation of Mercy and the 3Foundations of Civil Society | 81 3. Karl Gutzkow’s Wally, die Zweiflerin and the Despair of Artificiality | 105 3.1 Germanic Myths and

societal picture, I rely on Jean Cohen and Andrew Arato and their study Civil Society and Political Theory (1992). Their approaches to the civic realm will be of crucial importance, as they illuminate the conditions that govern literature’s influence on politics. Cohen and Arato imagine a political community in three categories: a civil, po- litical, and economic society (ix). It is with the first and second that this study is concerned, especially with their reciprocal influence. Civil society is a “sphere of social interaction between economy and the state

, Jean, and Andrew Arato. Civil Society and Political Theory. London: MIT Press, 1992. Colacurcio, Michael J. “Footsteps of Ann Hutchinson: The Context of The Scarlet Letter.” Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter and Other Writings. Leland S. Person, ed. New York: Norton, 2005. Denkler, Horst. “Zwischen Julirevolution (1830) und Märzrevolution (1848/49).” Geschichte der politischen Lyrik in Deutschland. Walter Hinderer, ed. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2007. Eke, Norbert. Einführung in die Literatur des Vormärz. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche

amount of “letting go” or “post-racial” utopi- anism will slip the yoke (Hartman, Scenes 6). Equating the WASP racial discourses of contemporary blackness with the legitimizing racial discourses, surrounding and supporting chattel slavery—thus, stating a continuous and unchanging stra- tegic invisibilization of black humanity within U.S. civil society—Afro-Pessimism intends to separate the structural positions of American Indians, Latin Americans, Asian Americans and other ethnic groups (all presumed “junior partners” of WASP civil society: Wilderson III, The Black

’s fu- ture in a much more detailed way because the nation’s development is imagined to function organically: Mercy and justice, the black flower and the rose-bush, the Pu- ritan fathers and the Puritan dissenters offer the constitutive elements that necessi- tate a specific (democratic) future. Hester’s free sphere at Boston’s margins pre- sents the ‘seed’ of civil society which enforces the ‘growth’ of a pluralistic, bal- anced, and finally democratic polity. Similarly, the trajectory of Brown’s characters is ‘rooted’ in the original Puritan voyage and

make them possible. The balancing of private and public interest can only succeed if spaces ex- ist that allow for both their subsistence. Hester’s experience of the flood of sunshine and her dissent will create such a space and lay the foundations of forest-freedom in a theocratic town. THE SCARLET LETTER AND THE OPENING OF FENCES | 81 2.4 THE RECUPERATION OF MERCY AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF CIVIL SOCIETY The Scarlet Letter as civic myth is not a narrative about an American family. It does not provide a happy ending for Hester, Pearl, and Arthur, because

organised gay liberation movement were detectable in Western Europe. His lifestyle was not only unsavoury to ‘civil society’, but also to other homosexuals, who did not identify with Crisp’s open effeminacy. This led to him being excluded from the heteronormative community as well as from its homosexual subculture. The above excerpt exemplifies Crisp’s sarcasm and sharp humour when disclosing his excluded position and his unwillingness to conform to social standards. Moreover, Crisp’s auto-biography denotes an often disengaged attitude towards the Second World War

sustainability, with a rainbow alliance of government, civil society and businesses devising novel strategies for increasing human welfare within planetary limits, on the other hand, the evidence is that global human enterprise is becoming rapidly less sustainable and not more. (Adams, 2006) Many sustainability scholars agree that our current UN-based framework for sustainability on which businesses, academic institutions, municipalities, and internal policy setters most often rely, is inadequate in application to the size, magnitude, and complexity of the pressing

, Volume I. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1991. ---. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. 1979. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009. Rose, Hilary, and Steven Rose. Genes, Cells and Brains: The Promethean Promises of the New Biology. London: Verso, 2012. Rose, Nikolas. “Becoming Neurochemical Selves.” Biotechnology, Commerce and Civil Society. Ed. Nico Stehr. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2004: 89-128. ---. “The Neurochemical Self and its Anomalies.” Risk and Morality. Eds. Richard Ericson and Aaron Doyle. Toronto: University of Toronto

words, fictions of business were attractive to these scholars due to their utility: they could teach different topics in business and management departments such as business ethics by using fictions of business. The Cold War ended decades ago and we live in a quite different world today, where it is easier to lead creative discussions about the motif of business without talking about Cold War dichotomies such as liberalism, capitalism and com- munism. This major change in the geopolitical situation and civil society has opened up a new and less fraught space