in the 20th century and the ‘fine-motor-skills-
digital sports’ that are on the rise today. Traditional sports are characterized by
a movement towards standardized, rationalized, medialized and commercialized
competitive arenas. When we view esports through the lens of sportification theory
and compare it to historical examples from other sports, current developments
in competitive computergaming (e. g. esports) come across as the latest addition
in a relatively long tradition of activities that have gone through sportification
processes. We argue that
Gamified applications for businesses were originally conceived within a
framework of product development and design (Deterding et al. 2011), similar to
the configuration of the computergame industry today, focusing on product sales
and surveying potential markets. The original approach attempts to condition
users through reward mechanics with the purpose of ‘hooking’ players to the
gamified service, based on the general belief that “[v]ariable-rate reinforcement is
effective at shaping a steady increase in the desired behaviour, apparently affecting
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understood beyond lines of code. (Victor
Within the genre of programming games insights can be gleaned into visu-
alising computational phenomena. SpaceChem is a computergame by Zach-
tronics that explores systems thinking and computational concepts. SpaceChem
is a puzzle game contextualized around a chemical manufacturing company, in
which a player performs the role of a Chemical Engineer who must configure
atoms into molecular combinations which are processed by chemical reactors to
produce a final product. The interactive process of building chemical
Casual Power 119
While a comparison between an old computergame and a movement centred on
self-tracking and self-assessment may seem inane at first, they are both rooted
in a cultural shift from analogue to digital platforms. Such a shift prioritises a
move to a clear and immediate display of numerical information, giving a sense
of purpose to an otherwise messy reality.
My autoethnography of the map was to show how the mundane actions
performed on the screen are informed by the necessary reductions that mapped
media exert on the physical world. Such
digital game design.
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-actualization (particularly through
playfulness), which will define much of the (seemingly) hedonistic tendencies of the
anti-war and ecological movements of that period.
production is reflected throughout the emancipatory rhetoric and practices of
the technologist culture in the 1960s and 1970s. As Turner (2006) recognizes,
Stewart Brand (whose Whole Earth Catalog is associated with the foundations of
the current maker movement) saw in the technological achievements of computergamers and AI researchers “countercultural pioneers” who were “inventing a
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ARENA DER MÄNNLICHKEIT | 87
erfassen. Vielmehr als um Spiele handelt es sich um Handlungs- und
Lebensräume von Menschen. „These worlds have their