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in the 20th century and the ‘fine-motor-skills- digital sports’ that are on the rise today. Traditional sports are characterized by a movement towards standardized, rationalized, medialized and commercialized competitive arenas. When we view esports through the lens of sportification theory and compare it to historical examples from other sports, current developments in competitive computer gaming (e. g. esports) come across as the latest addition in a relatively long tradition of activities that have gone through sportification processes. We argue that

needed. Gamified applications for businesses were originally conceived within a framework of product development and design (Deterding et al. 2011), similar to the configuration of the computer game industry today, focusing on product sales and surveying potential markets. The original approach attempts to condition users through reward mechanics with the purpose of ‘hooking’ players to the gamified service, based on the general belief that “[v]ariable-rate reinforcement is effective at shaping a steady increase in the desired behaviour, apparently affecting the

, J. (1967): Human Robots in Myth and Science. A. S. Barnes. Crawford, C. (1984): The Art of Computer Game Design. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Deep Mind. AlphaGo Zero: Learning from scratch: https://deepmind.com/blog/ alphago-zero-learning-scratch [Accessed 14.11.2017]. De Paoli, S. (2013): Automatic Play and Player Deskilling in MMORPGs. Game Studies 13 (1). Retrieved May 17, 2017, from http://gamestudies.org/1301/articles/ depaoli_automatic_play Dyer-Witheford, N. (2015): Cyber-Proletariat. Global Labour in the Digital Vortex. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

. Minne- apolis: University of Minnesota Press. Consalvo, M. (2007): Cheating: Gaining Advantage in Videogames. Cambridge: MIT Press. Crawford, C. (1982): The Art of Computer Game Design. Retrieved from http:// homes.lmc.gatech.edu/~bogost/courses/fall05/lcc2700/ppt/AoCGD.pdf. Crogan, P. (2011): Gameplay Mode: War, Simulation, and Technoculture. Minneapo- lis: University of Minnesota Press. Deleuze, G./Guattari, F. (1987 [1980]): A Thousand Plateaus. Minneapolis: Univer- sity of Minnesota Press. Dyer-Witherford, N./de Peuter, G. (2009): Games of Empire. Minneapolis

Computer Game Culture 4(1), pp. 1–6. Massanari, A. (2017): “#Gamergate and The Fappening: How Reddit’s Algorithm, Governance, and Culture Support Toxic Technocultures.” New Media & Society 19(3), pp. 329–346. DOI: 10.1177/1461444815608807. Maxwell, R./Raundalen, J./Vestberg, N. L. (2014): Media and the Ecological Crisis. New York/London: Routledge. The Polit ical Economy of Cultural Memor y in the Videogames Industr y 81 May, T. (2011): Social Research: Issues, Methods and Research. 4th ed. Berkshire, England: Open University Press. Mitchell, K. (2008): Intention and

understood beyond lines of code. (Victor 2012, 2012) Within the genre of programming games insights can be gleaned into visu- alising computational phenomena. SpaceChem is a computer game by Zach- tronics that explores systems thinking and computational concepts. SpaceChem is a puzzle game contextualized around a chemical manufacturing company, in which a player performs the role of a Chemical Engineer who must configure atoms into molecular combinations which are processed by chemical reactors to produce a final product. The interactive process of building chemical

). Casual Power 119 Conclusion While a comparison between an old computer game and a movement centred on self-tracking and self-assessment may seem inane at first, they are both rooted in a cultural shift from analogue to digital platforms. Such a shift prioritises a move to a clear and immediate display of numerical information, giving a sense of purpose to an otherwise messy reality. My autoethnography of the map was to show how the mundane actions performed on the screen are informed by the necessary reductions that mapped media exert on the physical world. Such

digital game design. References Aardse, K. (2014): The other side of the valley; or, between Freud and videogames. Journal of Games Criticism, 1(1), pp. 1–14. Abend, P./Beil, B. (2015): Editors of Play: The Scripts and Practices of Co-creativity in Minecraft and LittleBigPlanet. DiGRA Conference. Brock, T. (2017): Videogame consumption: The apophatic dimension. Journal of Consumer Culture, 17(2), pp. 167–183. Brock, T./Fraser, E. (2018): Is computer gaming a craft? Prehension, practice, and puzzle-solving in gaming labour. Information, Communication & Society, 21

-actualization (particularly through playfulness), which will define much of the (seemingly) hedonistic tendencies of the anti-war and ecological movements of that period. Minka Stoyanova80 production is reflected throughout the emancipatory rhetoric and practices of the technologist culture in the 1960s and 1970s. As Turner (2006) recognizes, Stewart Brand (whose Whole Earth Catalog is associated with the foundations of the current maker movement) saw in the technological achievements of computer gamers and AI researchers “countercultural pioneers” who were “inventing a new

realities. Computerspiele und soziale Wirklichkeit (= 1. International Computer Game Konferenz Köln), Mün- chen: Kopaed, S. 137. 8 Wagner, Michael (2008): „Interaktionstechnologie im gesellschaftlichen Spiel. Eine Grundsatzthese zur kulturellen Bedeutung von digitalen und hy- briden Spielen“, in: Konstantin Mitgutsch/Herbert Rosenstingl (Hg.), Faszi- nation Computerspielen. Theorie-Kultur-Erleben, Wien: Braumüller, S. 47. ARENA DER MÄNNLICHKEIT | 87 erfassen. Vielmehr als um Spiele handelt es sich um Handlungs- und Lebensräume von Menschen. „These worlds have their