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monograph on British poetry anthologies from the Renais- sance until the twentieth century. Billie Melman is Professor of History, Henry Glasberg Chair of European Studies and Director of the Graduate School of Historical Studies at Tel Aviv University. She is author of The Culture of History: English Uses of the Past, 1800-1953 (2006) and Women’s Orient: English Women and the Middle East, 1718-1918 (1992) and co-editor, with Stefan Berger and Chris Lorenz, of Popularizing National Pasts 1800 to the Present (2012). Philipp Müller is Lecturer at University

certain segments of the past significant and useful for their present concerns and interpretative needs. »Cultures of history«, according to Billie Melman (2006: 11), are »cultures at work«; they make »versions of history meaningful and workable for individuals within the constrictions of society, the economy, and the state«, and they do so »both in a social and material world and in their imaginary« (Melman 2006: 4). Historical cultures today draw from a wide range of media and forms, notably those with a main- stream or even ›popular‹ appeal.2 The particular

Dur Sharru-Kin) and Nineveh (›modern‹ Kuyunjik). The fall of the Assyrian Empires may foreshadow the burden of the modern empire and its future. The colossi’s odyssey showcases at least four characteristics of the mul- tiple reproductions and uses of antiquity in modernity. The first character- istic is the sheer physical dimension of Assyria, the materiality which an- cient history acquired in modernity. This materiality characterized the new popular culture of history which emerged in Britain after 1800: Traces and remains of the past became visible to

identical with the second half of a presenta- tion given at the conference “Opening Historical Reconciliation in East Asia through Historical Dialogue” in Seoul in October 2007, meanwhile published (Borries 2009). 2 The typology presented here was introduced by myself some years ago (see Borries 2008: 121-137). It is the result of theoretical reflections as well as of observations and qualitative empirical studies in the culture of history (autobiographies, novels, interviews, historical narrations). BODO VON BORRIES 166 b. The history of the winners and

can now look at photographs as historical evidence in ways less burdened by the critical debates about indexicality. The obsession with indexicality, it should now be clear, which persisted into twentieth-century structuralism and therefore into a canon of texts on how to interpret photographs, was only one marker of an incredibly vital era of visual culture. In The Culture of History, Billie Melman depicts the long-term British fascination with the material culture of the Tudors as an expression of a popular historical consciousness that gravitated towards

individual’s and a group’s orientation in life. Teaching history in a (self-)reflective way BODO VON BORRIES 282 does not mean teaching (nor enforcing) special knowledge, conclusions, opinions and attitudes, but stimulating and promoting participation in the culture of history (using [re]presentations of history), building one’s own historical identity (definition of self and groups in the course of time) and improving one’s historical competence (developed abilities and willingness of thinking historically) (see Körber et al. 2007; Schreiber/Körber 2006) 1. The


- ing to develop a self-consciousness of history and a use of history which supports the democratic political culture? • How can theoretical insights about the consciousness of history, the use of history and the culture of history be transformed into concrete methods of teaching? • How can an improvement of the level of historical reflection about WWII and the Holocaust be adequately described and evaluated? The intention of this book is to combine scholarly work and empirical examples in the fields of historical consciousness, history culture and

Staging of Rough Crossings«. Atlantic Studies 6.2, pp. 191-206. Meikle, James/Peter Walker (2009): »Hundreds of Thousands Log in to View Digitalised 1911 Census«. In: The Guardian, 13 January 2009 ( Mellor, Adrian (1991): »Enterprise and Heritage in the Dock«. In: Corner/ Harvey (1991), pp. 93-115. Melman, Billie (2006): The Culture of History: English Uses of the Past, 1800-1953, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Metaxas, Eric (2007): Amazing Grace: William Wilberforce and the Heroic Campaign to

the past” to be used throughout the article are to a certain extent chosen in line with the argumentation put forward by Karlsson in his discussion on the concept of historical consciousness and the analytical operationaliza- tion into “historical culture” and “uses of history” (See the contribution by Karlsson). Still, within this specific context I find “culture of memory” more appropriate, as the concept of memory alludes more to the private, un-official ways of using and presenting the past than does the concept of the culture of history. Moreover

(Barkan 2000: XV-XXI). Historical communities identify them- selves as victims or as guilty. Representation of victimization and guilt appear in public history, also called the culture of history, which in- cludes collective memories, ritual commemorations, monuments, cultur- al products and schoolbook texts. The representations may be positively assuring for the members of a community but provocative to others. They may even ignite history wars, as, for example, the heated debates about the schoolbook representations of the Second World War between China and Japan