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integrated non-western objects in their collections, arose in the mid-19th century parallel to ethnological museums. These were displayed together with contemporary designs and served as visual aids for new formal assemblages during educational training. Although African art and the design avant-garde in Germany are normally not considered together, r eferences to the inclusion of African cultural heritage in the form-finding processes of modernism can be found in connection with the Deutscher Werkbund, which was founded in Munich in 1907. The Hagener

349 Ernest Wolf-Gazo RITUAL AND SCENOGRAPHY IN THE CONTEXT OF TRIBAL SOCIETY. 1. PRELIMINARY REMARKS The phenomenon of rituals, or ritual patterns, seems to belong to ethnology, specifically cultural anthropology. Yet, in the new century in which the globalization process manifests itself over the globe we must reassess the understanding of ritual. We focus on tribal society, or communities within the context of scenography; that is to say, scenography needs to be expanded and include possibilities that had not been possible prior the internet and

Polyvalenz des Primitiven, Regula Iselin traces the importance of objects and artefacts from outside Europe for the history of European design as far back as the late eighteenth century.31 In these works, she illustrates their effects on design in Europe even before the 10 first World Fairs. From the mid-nineteenth century, with expeditions in the colonial context leading to an explosion in the material and visual cultures of things, not only were non-European objects and artefacts entering the collections of the newly founded ethnological museums, but could also be

, spontaneous dismissal is imminent.30 28 Bourdieu (see note 9), 74. 29 Cf. The ethnology of everyday passions by Christian Bromberger et al., Passions ordinaires. Du match de football au concours de dictée. Paris 1998. 30 Cf. Martin Kohli, Institutionalisierung und Individualisierung der Erwerbsbio- graphie, in: U. Beck und E. Beck-Gernsheim (Eds.) (see note 18), 236. WINE ADVERTISING AND BIOGRAPHY | 127 Thus, advertising stories portray individual freedom and scopes of action, an easily understood dichotomy of

265AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES REGINA BITTNER studied cultural theory and art history at Leipzig University and received her doctorate from the Institute for European Ethnology at the Humboldt Universität zu Ber- lin. As head of the Academy of the Bauhaus Dessau Foundation she is responsible for the conceptualization and teaching of the postgraduate program for architecture and design re- search. She has curated numerous exhibitions on the architectural, design and cultural history of modernism and the Bauhaus. She has been the Deputy Director of

a politics of form? For only two years, Bataille would run the magazine insert that combined and, at the same time, transgressed the fields of ethnology, aesthetics and philosophy. Articles about the mouth, museum, the slaughter house and the big toe (introduced as the most human part of the body) were arranged with photographs of ancient medallions, skyscrapers, Parisian abattoirs, Picasso’s portraits and Hollywood musicals among other things. In direct relation to the images of a fish chasing other (smaller) fish, of an ape in a costume and of a

and define them- selves “through the results of their own actions.”47 The ongoing work of self-definition was the task of design. Even as we note and appreciate what design professionals have achieved in the decades since Shapira took his students to advertising firms, government ministries and ethnology museums, we must question whether, as a discipline, design and designers have met Mvusi’s demand that they also make rain. 1 Fred Karanja, 1972, My Ideal Home, April 4, 1–2, Shapira Design Archive, SFSU, San Francisco 2 Selby Mvusi, March 1966, Current