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World War I and the Cultural Sciences in Europe
Series: Histoire, 12

ANHANG 285 chen Beiträge. Hierbei wurden auch Aufsätze berücksichtigt, die sich mit Fragen der Psychologie beschäftigten. Rein politisch argumentie- rende Aufsätze fanden keine Berücksichtigung. Die Tabelle zeigt, daß der Natural History Review in der Zeit, in der er vom X-Club herausge- geben wurde, für den Diskurs der scientific community ein wichtiges Forum darstellte und zugleich anthropologischen Fragen mehr Raum bot als andere Journale seiner Zeit, ausgenommen natürlich jene Magazine, die von der Anthropological Society oder von der Ethnological

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Fragen mehr Raum bot als andere Journale seiner Zeit, ausgenommen natürlich jene Magazine, die von der Anthropological Society oder von der Ethnological Society herausgegeben wurden. B Abkürzungen AP: British Library: Avebury Papers CCD: Frederick Burkhardt, Sydney Smith (Hrsg.): The Corre spondence of Charles Darwin. Cambridge 1985ff CE: Thomas Henry Huxley: Collected Essays, 8 Bde. London 1893-1894 Essays: Herbert Spencer: Essays, Scientific, Political, and Specula- tive, 3 Bde., New York 1901 HP: Imperial College: Huxley Papers HSP

about 1840 to 1870. One might almost call it a ,thirty years’ war‘ – a war between two words, Ethnology and Anthropology, a war between those who were historians and philosophers on the one side, and those who were for science, particularly biology […] on the other; a war between humanitarians whose science was related to their advocacy of a cause on one side and, on the other, pure scientists who would separate scientific truth from all other human concerns“. X-CLUB UND ANTHROPOLOGIE 99 tionstheorie ist deshalb in seiner frühen historischen Entwicklung nur

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EVOLUTION UND RASSE 286 C Literatur Archive Athenaeum Collection, Herbert Spencer Papers, Library, University of London. Avebury Papers, British Library, London. Busk Papers, Royal College of Surgeons of London. Huxley Papers, Imperial College, London. Lubbock Papers, Library of the Royal Society. Council Minutes Book, Ethnological Society of London, Archives of the Royal Anthropological Institute. Anthropological Society of London, Council Minutes, Archives of the Royal Anthropological Institute. Primärquellen: Schriften des X

Silverman, One Discipline, Four Ways: British, German, French, and American Anthropology; Th e Halle Lectures (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005); Andre Gingrich and Marcus Banks, eds., Neo-nationalism in Europe and Beyond: Perspectives from Social Anthropology (Oxford, NY: Berghahn, 2006). Reinhard Johler is professor of European Ethnology [Empirische Kultur- wissenschaft ] at the Ludwig Uhland Institute, University of Tübingen. He re- ceived his PhD in 1994 from the University of Vienna, with stops in Cambridge (UK) and Milan (Italy) during his

Silverman, One Discipline, Four Ways: British, German, French, and American Anthropology; Th e Halle Lectures (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005); Andre Gingrich and Marcus Banks, eds., Neo-nationalism in Europe and Beyond: Perspectives from Social Anthropology (Oxford, NY: Berghahn, 2006). Reinhard Johler is professor of European Ethnology [Empirische Kultur- wissenschaft ] at the Ludwig Uhland Institute, University of Tübingen. He re- ceived his PhD in 1994 from the University of Vienna, with stops in Cambridge (UK) and Milan (Italy) during his

anthropology, therefore, was of a more indirect nature. As Emmanuelle Sibeud has recently argued, the academicians who had been loathe to cooperate with “colonial ethnographer/administrators,” viewing them as theoretically uninformed amateurs, reconsidered this stance aft er 1918. Durkheim and Mauss in particular had avoided contact, as they were political- ly critical of France’s colonial engagement and feared ethnology could become a handmaiden to it. However, “World War I and its aft ermath changed ethnolo- gists’ relationship to colonial regimes,” writes Sibeud

anthropology, therefore, was of a more indirect nature. As Emmanuelle Sibeud has recently argued, the academicians who had been loathe to cooperate with “colonial ethnographer/administrators,” viewing them as theoretically uninformed amateurs, reconsidered this stance aft er 1918. Durkheim and Mauss in particular had avoided contact, as they were political- ly critical of France’s colonial engagement and feared ethnology could become a handmaiden to it. However, “World War I and its aft ermath changed ethnolo- gists’ relationship to colonial regimes,” writes Sibeud

the anthropologically less well-known peoples of the Russian Empire who, it is feared, may soon die out under Tsarist Russifi cation.10 In the same year, similar research in Germany is initiated by Luschan.11 POWs from colonies around the world are seen as off ering specialists an opportunity to in Vienna. In 1885, he took a position as assistant at the Ethnological Museum in Berlin. In Berlin, Luschan acquired the venia legendi in physical anthropolo- gy in 1888, and, in 1900, an extraordinary professorship was established there for him. Luschan’s chair