studied Slavistics and Ethnology in Vi-
enna, Ljubljana and Prague and holds a master’s and a doctoral degree from
the University of Vienna. His research focus is on 20th- and 21st-century
Slovene literature, autobiographical writing, cultural transfer, memory cul-
ture and the literature and culture of the Slovene minority in Austria. He is
co-editor (with Alenka Koron) of the volume Avtobiografski diskurz (2011)
and head of the project “Bilingual literary practice in Carinthia after the
discontinuation of mladje (1991) and its position in the supra
Aštalkovska Gajtanoska, Ana, PhD, is Assistant Professor at the Institute of
Ethnology and Anthropology, Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, North
Macedonia. In her MA thesis, she analyzed gossiping as a mechanism of social
control in a village in the western part of North Macedonia. Her PhD thesis was
devoted to the anthropology of intimacy and methodological aspects of research-
ing intimate topics in the Macedonian context. She is currently interested in the
history of ethnocentrism in folklore studies, ethnology and
search interest: Balkan history, economic and social history of the Balkans in the
interwar period (1919-1939), history of economic institution, comparative studies
and entangled history of Balkan states, methodology of historical research. Re-
cent publications: Razvoj industrije na Balkanu. Tekstilna industrija u Kraljevini SHS I
Bugarskoj 1919-1929, Serbia 2018.
Reana Senjković, research advisor at the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Re-
search, Zagreb. National coordinator for the research project INFORM: Closing the
Gap Between Formal and Informal
Under “traditional culture” we consider those norms and regulations that existed
during the second part of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, domi-
nating in rural areas, and which are present today in a more or less altered form,
both in rural and in urban social contexts (Đorđević 2001: 16-17).
HOW OLD IS (TOO) “OLD”?
Old age in North Macedonian ethnological inquiries has not been given the at-
tention it deserves. This is a paradox, especially if one takes into account the
reverence that ethnologists demonstrate for the field data
his 1923/24 essayTheGift for archaic, illiterate cultures.2This pertains, in particular,
also Beganović, Davor (2009) Poetika melankolije, Na tragovima suvremene bosansko-hercegovačke
književsnosti. Sarajevo; especially on Jergović, 319-357.
2 Mauss, Marcel (1925; 1950) Essai sur le don, forme et raison de l’échange dans les sociétés archaïques.
Paris. The analogies between the gift economy of primal societies and modern and thus also
socialist economies, which were referred to in various ways, are reflected throughout Mauss’
ethnological essay by its
. 6: Tito with mineworkers, undated,
from: Duga, 8 th May 1980: 57. Unknown photographer.
Vesna Fister noticed that in Tito poetry from 1948 to 1980 messianic and
eschatological motives (Tito as a light or a star) and rituals glorifying him
were increasingly used.30 Now, songs about Tito were collected; they even
became an object of ethnological research.31
At the 6th Congress of folklorists held in 1959 in Bled, the ethnographer
Dušan Nedeljković read a paper about “Folk creativity in the period before
30 V. Fister,: “Ti, naše pesmi začetek!”.
Academy of Sciences.
The articles in Part 2, entitled “Qualitative and Quantitative Inquiries,” are
based on field research conducted by academics who come from the fields of so-
ciology, social psychology, ethnology and human geography.
This section of the essay collection opens with a chapter by ANA
AŠTALKOVSKA GAJTANOSKA and ILINA JAKIMOVSKA on traditional and contem-
porary conceptualizations of old age in a rural environment in the Balkans, “No
Country for Old People: Ethnography of Traditional and Contemporary Concep-
tualizations of Old Age in Rural North
: Entwicklung und Struktur) Definitionen
des RuNet, die diesem auch die nationalen Domains anderer Staaten der
GUS, etwa der Ukraine oder Kazachstans, zuschlagen. An die Stelle der
Theorien von der scheinbaren Raum- und Zeitlosigkeit des Cyberspace ist in
der Internetforschung, insbesondere in der „Virtuellen Ethnologie“ („virtual
ethnology“; HINE 2000; ZURAWSKI 2000), schon früh die Einsicht getreten,
dass kulturelle Identitäten sich im Netz nicht unabhängig von Tradition und
Geschichte formieren. Dies machen auch die skizzierten Kampagnen um die