were nonetheless used.
Examples here include the Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek/Lebanon (Lohmann 2018)
and Cologne Cathedral, which was 632 years in the building (Hardering 2014: 125).
In the following I attempt to describe the concepts and examples of monumen-
tality in three steps. First, before building we find a planning and conceptual phase
when the motivation of the actors plays a particularly significant role. Second,
this is followed by the phase during building, that is, the concrete implementation
and organization of such a project. Finally, I discuss
, Münster: Ugarit-Verlag.
Da Riva, R. (2012): The Twin Inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar at Brisa (Wadi
esh-Sharbin, Lebanon). A Historical and Philological Study, AfO Beiheft 32,
Vienna: Institut für Orientalistik der Universität Wien.
Da Riva, R. (2013): The Inscriptions of Nabopolassar, Amēl-Marduk and Neriglis-
sar, Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records 3, Boston; Berlin: De Gruyter.
George, A. R. (1992): Babylonian Topographical Texts, Orientalia Lovaniensia Ana-
lecta 40, Leuven: Peeters.
George, A. R. (2001/02): “Palace names and Epithets, and the Vaulted Building
rooms to support the roof and smaller beams to lay on
top or to cover smaller rooms. The relation between both types is approximately
two to three times more smaller beams than bigger ones. The bigger beams could
reach a length of 7 m and probably more (Eichmann 2007: 244) and are therefore
costlier in terms of energy than smaller beams, which could be found and trans-
ported much more easily. The transportation costs of these bigger beams were
very high, as they had to be imported from far away, probably Lebanon, Turkey, or
Iran (Kuniholm 1997: 347). The