im Neuen – in
Christi Lebens- und Leidensgeschichte – der Rest der Menschheitsgeschichte.
Diesen typologischen Zugriff auf die Bibel, die Idee also, dass man aus dem
1999 ; Robert E. Lerner, The Powers of Prophecy: The Cedar of Lebanon Vision from
the Mongol Onslaught to the Dawn of Enlightenment, Berkeley 1983; Bernard
McGinn, Visions of the End: Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages, New York
1979, 2. Aufl. 1998; Roberto Rusconi, L’attesa della fine. Crisi della società, profezia
iD., The Archaeology of the Nile Delta Egypt. Problems and Priorities,
In Search of a Future Companion
Villas, catHleen, Geological Investigations, in: The Survey at Naukratis and
Environs, ed. by W. coulson, Oxford 1996, p. 163-75.
Von Der Way, tHomas, Investigations Concerning the Pre- and Early Dynastic
Periods in the Northern Delta of Egypt, in: The Near East in Antiquity.
German Contributions to the Archaeology of Jordan, Palestine, Syria,
Lebanon and Egypt, ed. by s. Kerner, Amman 1991, p. 47-61.
Warne, anDreW/stanley, Daniel
9 HEINRICH, 2001, S. 8.
Abbildung 1: Walid Raad und Akram Zaatari, ID: Men – Classified according to
type of moustache. Portraits from Studio Anouchian, Tripoli, Lebanon 1935–70
(Mapping Sitting 2002)
Eine besondere Pointe liegt darin, dass Passfotos in diesem Kunstwerk
verwendet werden. Passbilder sollen gerade die markanten Besonder-
heiten der jeweiligen Person festhalten und sie damit identifizierbar
machen.10 In der seriellen Anordnung der ID-Bilder aus Mapping Sitting
verlieren die Personen ihre Einzigartigkeit – zum einen
: Israel, settler-colonialism,
genocide. Holy Land Studies, 11(1), 1-32.
Docker, J. (2017). Reconceptualising settler-colonialism and genocide with special
reference to Palestine, Sri Lanka and Australia: reflections on Damien Short’s
redefining genocide: settler colonialism, social death and ecocide. Journal of
Holy Land and Palestine Studies 16(1), 27-45.
Doraï, M. K. (2003). Palestinian emigration from Lebanon to Northern Europe:
refugees, networks and transnational practices. Refuge, 21(2), 23-31.
Du Bois, W. (1903). Souls of black folk. Chicago: McClurg & co.
The Intellectual Legacy. Ed. Elisabeth Özdalga. London: Routledge Press
(2005): 254-273) and Benjamin C. Fortna’s book Imperial Classroom (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2002) deal with the issue of education in late Ottoman
society. Ussama Makdisi’s book Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries
and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East (Ithaca: Cornel University Press,
2008) offers original ideas on how the missionary activities contributed to the
emergence of an Arab identity especially in Syria and Lebanon.
3 Metaphors of the Founding Years,
You see that window. There are glasses in
it of different colors. One is blue, one red,
another white, another green. The sun
shines on them; they cast shadows of dif-
ferent hues; the light is all one – from the
same sun. So with man. Here are the Mus-
sulmans, Druses, Christians, – different
shades – the same sun – the same light.
(The answer of a dervish to missionary Jo-
nas King at Deir el Qamar, Lebanon, in
In this chapter, the infrastructure of the conceptual background, its meta
restoration of the Jews to Palestine and to Jesus
would occur. They took the Near East as a central scene for the new era.53
The first ten years proved especially hard for the first missionaries.
Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons not only encountered many problems, they also
met with early deaths within a couple of years as a result of poor condi-
tions. Persecution was another major problem. Yet, direct state persecution
was an exception thanks to the quasi autonomous position enjoyed by reli-
gious communities. Hence, as the missionary work in Mount Lebanon, Syr-
strictly in Turkey.28 As a result, the so-called Palestine Mission was re-
named as the Western Asia Mission.29
One of the original fields of operation was Ottoman Syria, together with
the region of Mount Lebanon. The Board conducted missionary work in
Syria for a considerable amount of time. William Goodell and Isaac Bird
arrived at Beirut on November 16, 1823.30 Eli Smith joined them on Febru-
ary 18, 1827.31 Because of the unrest created by the war between the
Greeks and the Ottoman Empire, and the recent destruction of the Turkish
armada at Navarino, Eli Smith
invisible cage: Syrian migrant workers in Lebanon
Stanford studies in Middle Eastern and Islamic societies and cultures,
Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Chalhoub, Sidney (2011): “The Precariousness of Freedom in a Slave Society.
Brazil in the Nineteenth Century.” In: International Review of Social History
56/3, pp. 405-439.
Coté, Joost (2004): “Slaves, Coolies, and Garrison Whores. A Colonial
Discourse of “Unfreedom” in the Dutch East Indies.” In: Gwyn
Campbell/Elizabeth Elbourne (eds.), Sex, Power, and Slavery, Athens: Ohio
University Press, pp. 561
not even favour humans. They would equally have used
animals as ‘slaves’. Mules, donkeys, or oxen were taken into consideration;
however, they could not be used everywhere. In addition, the slave traders
thought and operated in the same way as the protagonists of Jules Verne’s
novels: in a global and cosmopolitan way. They experimented with Mayas from
Yucatán, Apache from northern Mexico, Lebanese or Syrian Christians and
Arabs from the Ottoman Empire, with Catholic Germans from the Black Forest
of the German Empire, Spaniards from Galicia and the Canary