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. 9 HEINRICH, 2001, S. 8. Abbildung 1: Walid Raad und Akram Zaatari, ID: Men – Classified according to type of moustache. Portraits from Studio Anouchian, Tripoli, Lebanon 1935–70 (Mapping Sitting 2002) Alexandra Karentzos 254 Eine besondere Pointe liegt darin, dass Passfotos in diesem Kunstwerk verwendet werden. Passbilder sollen gerade die markanten Besonder- heiten der jeweiligen Person festhalten und sie damit identifizierbar machen.10 In der seriellen Anordnung der ID-Bilder aus Mapping Sitting verlieren die Personen ihre Einzigartigkeit – zum einen

: Israel, settler-colonialism, genocide. Holy Land Studies, 11(1), 1-32. Docker, J. (2017). Reconceptualising settler-colonialism and genocide with special reference to Palestine, Sri Lanka and Australia: reflections on Damien Short’s redefining genocide: settler colonialism, social death and ecocide. Journal of Holy Land and Palestine Studies 16(1), 27-45. Doraï, M. K. (2003). Palestinian emigration from Lebanon to Northern Europe: refugees, networks and transnational practices. Refuge, 21(2), 23-31. Du Bois, W. (1903). Souls of black folk. Chicago: McClurg & co. Eisler

Society: The Intellectual Legacy. Ed. Elisabeth Özdalga. London: Routledge Press (2005): 254-273) and Benjamin C. Fortna’s book Imperial Classroom (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) deal with the issue of education in late Ottoman society. Ussama Makdisi’s book Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East (Ithaca: Cornel University Press, 2008) offers original ideas on how the missionary activities contributed to the emergence of an Arab identity especially in Syria and Lebanon.

3 Metaphors of the Founding Years, 1820-1830 You see that window. There are glasses in it of different colors. One is blue, one red, another white, another green. The sun shines on them; they cast shadows of dif- ferent hues; the light is all one – from the same sun. So with man. Here are the Mus- sulmans, Druses, Christians, – different shades – the same sun – the same light. (The answer of a dervish to missionary Jo- nas King at Deir el Qamar, Lebanon, in 1824)1 In this chapter, the infrastructure of the conceptual background, its meta

restoration of the Jews to Palestine and to Jesus would occur. They took the Near East as a central scene for the new era.53 The first ten years proved especially hard for the first missionaries. Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons not only encountered many problems, they also met with early deaths within a couple of years as a result of poor condi- tions. Persecution was another major problem. Yet, direct state persecution was an exception thanks to the quasi autonomous position enjoyed by reli- gious communities. Hence, as the missionary work in Mount Lebanon, Syr- ia and

strictly in Turkey.28 As a result, the so-called Palestine Mission was re- named as the Western Asia Mission.29 One of the original fields of operation was Ottoman Syria, together with the region of Mount Lebanon. The Board conducted missionary work in Syria for a considerable amount of time. William Goodell and Isaac Bird arrived at Beirut on November 16, 1823.30 Eli Smith joined them on Febru- ary 18, 1827.31 Because of the unrest created by the war between the Greeks and the Ottoman Empire, and the recent destruction of the Turkish armada at Navarino, Eli Smith

invisible cage: Syrian migrant workers in Lebanon Stanford studies in Middle Eastern and Islamic societies and cultures, Stanford: Stanford University Press. Chalhoub, Sidney (2011): “The Precariousness of Freedom in a Slave Society. Brazil in the Nineteenth Century.” In: International Review of Social History 56/3, pp. 405-439. Coté, Joost (2004): “Slaves, Coolies, and Garrison Whores. A Colonial Discourse of “Unfreedom” in the Dutch East Indies.” In: Gwyn Campbell/Elizabeth Elbourne (eds.), Sex, Power, and Slavery, Athens: Ohio University Press, pp. 561

not even favour humans. They would equally have used animals as ‘slaves’. Mules, donkeys, or oxen were taken into consideration; however, they could not be used everywhere. In addition, the slave traders thought and operated in the same way as the protagonists of Jules Verne’s novels: in a global and cosmopolitan way. They experimented with Mayas from Yucatán, Apache from northern Mexico, Lebanese or Syrian Christians and Arabs from the Ottoman Empire, with Catholic Germans from the Black Forest of the German Empire, Spaniards from Galicia and the Canary

– basierend auf malaysischen Kindern von Armeeangehörigen – zu errechnen.65 In Guyana dachte ein Arzt ebenfalls über einen lokalen Standard nach, verzichtete jedoch auf diese Idee mit der Begründung, dass in diesem Land Kinder »von indischer Herkunft« viel dünnere Arme hätten als jene »von 60 | Kanawati, Abdullah A./Haddad, Nadra/McLaren, Donald S.: »(XIV) Preliminary Results with Mid-Arm and Muscle Mid-Arm Circumferences Used as Nutritional Screening Procedures for Pre-School Children in the Lebanon«, in: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 15,4 (1969), S. 233–237. 61

werden sie auch als dieje- nigen gezeigt, die aus dem Leid der Opfer auf ihrer Seite politisches Kapital schla- gen, diese also auf zynische Weise missbrauchen. In diesem Sinne charakterisierte Charles Krauthammer während des Kuwaitkrieges die Strategie Saddam Husseins als »one the Palestinians have perfected over the last decade: provoke a fight, lose the fight, pile up the bodies and invite the press. That was the story of the Lebanon war of 1982, a war that the Palestinians provoked with years of unrelenting attack on civilians in northern Israel and which