: Israel, settler-colonialism,
genocide. Holy Land Studies, 11(1), 1-32.
Docker, J. (2017). Reconceptualising settler-colonialism and genocide with special
reference to Palestine, Sri Lanka and Australia: reflections on Damien Short’s
redefining genocide: settler colonialism, social death and ecocide. Journal of
Holy Land and Palestine Studies 16(1), 27-45.
Doraï, M. K. (2003). Palestinian emigration from Lebanon to Northern Europe:
refugees, networks and transnational practices. Refuge, 21(2), 23-31.
Du Bois, W. (1903). Souls of black folk. Chicago: McClurg & co.
The Intellectual Legacy. Ed. Elisabeth Özdalga. London: Routledge Press
(2005): 254-273) and Benjamin C. Fortna’s book Imperial Classroom (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2002) deal with the issue of education in late Ottoman
society. Ussama Makdisi’s book Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries
and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East (Ithaca: Cornel University Press,
2008) offers original ideas on how the missionary activities contributed to the
emergence of an Arab identity especially in Syria and Lebanon.
3 Metaphors of the Founding Years,
You see that window. There are glasses in
it of different colors. One is blue, one red,
another white, another green. The sun
shines on them; they cast shadows of dif-
ferent hues; the light is all one – from the
same sun. So with man. Here are the Mus-
sulmans, Druses, Christians, – different
shades – the same sun – the same light.
(The answer of a dervish to missionary Jo-
nas King at Deir el Qamar, Lebanon, in
In this chapter, the infrastructure of the conceptual background, its meta
restoration of the Jews to Palestine and to Jesus
would occur. They took the Near East as a central scene for the new era.53
The first ten years proved especially hard for the first missionaries.
Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons not only encountered many problems, they also
met with early deaths within a couple of years as a result of poor condi-
tions. Persecution was another major problem. Yet, direct state persecution
was an exception thanks to the quasi autonomous position enjoyed by reli-
gious communities. Hence, as the missionary work in Mount Lebanon, Syr-
strictly in Turkey.28 As a result, the so-called Palestine Mission was re-
named as the Western Asia Mission.29
One of the original fields of operation was Ottoman Syria, together with
the region of Mount Lebanon. The Board conducted missionary work in
Syria for a considerable amount of time. William Goodell and Isaac Bird
arrived at Beirut on November 16, 1823.30 Eli Smith joined them on Febru-
ary 18, 1827.31 Because of the unrest created by the war between the
Greeks and the Ottoman Empire, and the recent destruction of the Turkish
armada at Navarino, Eli Smith