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»Playing music saved us from going nuts« Childhood Trauma and the Sound Works of Beiruti Artists of the Civil War Generation THOMAS BURKHALTER »Yes, I have a trained ear. I know if some- one is lying from the tone of his voice. I learned this from listening to our politi- cians« JOELLE KHOURY, PIANIST (2006) In 2006, the night before the war between Israel and Hizbullah started, I sat in an Italian restaurant in East Beirut. With me were Cynthia Zaven, a Lebanese pianist and composer, and Catherine Cattaruzza, a Beirut based graphic designer

bei Konzerten und Privatfes- ten im Golf. Manchmal singen sie an sechs Orten in einer Nacht: an privaten Parties, in Hotels und in TV Shows. Zwanzig Minuten pro Show, das ergibt 100.000 Dollar und mehr pro Nacht. Und Hubert Ghorayeb von EMI Lebanon fügt hinzu: Frauen haben die größeren Chancen in diesem Geschäft. Sie sind allerdings durch rigide Verträge an Rotana gebunden (Hackensberger 2005). Rotana verfügt über alles: Auftritte, Konzerte, CDs und Videoclips ein FRAUENROLLEN UND POPMUSIK IN DER ARABISCHEN WELT 191 »Rundum«-Vertrag quasi. Letztere Praxis

Foundation to obtain recognition for women’s achievements in culture. The Jamila research and editorial project began in 2004, in collaboration with musicologists, ethnomusicologists and researchers (men and women) from the countries, which historically and geographically constitute the Mediterranean: France, Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Cyprus, Turkey, Greece, Albania, Italy. 1 In Italy, this includes schoolchildren aged ten to 14. However, in some private schools there are children who enter ‘Middle School’ at

. Der Musiker und Produzent Robert Koch erklärt: »I think its authentic.« Der Musikwissenschaftler und Kenner der arabischen Musik Neil van der Linden wertet Jubrans Gesang als eigenstän- dig und nimmt einige Diskussionspunkte vorweg: »Kamilya Jubran has a singing and composing style of her own, which she accentuates by choosing her own kind of accompaniment, on this album with electronic music. Of course there are side-references to certain musical tradi- tions in the Arab world. Her voice has been justly compared to notably the Lebanese and Syrian Christian

]ou don’t want divas. You want people who will appreciate the opportunity.” Further, musicians were asked to cultivate an empathetic response to the challenges of travel. Rockower recalled asking applicants to anticipate disastrous scenarios: “Pretend you’re doing a program in Lebanon and you’re on your way to a Palestinian refugee camp. . . . [When you arrive,] they’ve been sitting there for two hours and there’s no power. What do you do?” Although this hypothetical two hours probably in- cludes stressful situations for the musicians, team members are expected to

’s presumed authentic experiences, three years later, the band Sons of Gastarbeita, a formation of young Lebanese-German and Philip- pine-German rap musicians in the Ruhr Area,11 one of the biggest metropolitan regions in Germany, released a song that shows the same functional elements as “Ahmet Gündüz,” including spoken German by Turkish Gastarbeiter and the denunciation of a collective lack of integration. In contrast to “Ahmet Gündüz,” however, the song points to the generational process of cultural rootedness rather than to actual experiences of social, politi

popularity occurred during the last years of political stability in the country, but the rest of his career has been within the context of the brutal civil war that, since 2011, has torn the country apart and produced millions of refugees. This process has changed the meaning of ›Syria‹ in the west. I am not just referring to the association of the country with violence and war. This is, after all, far from unique and similar associations can be found with countries as diverse as Bosnia, Lebanon and Congo (although they can fade post-war). What has happened in Syria

CORNELIA LUND AND HOLGER LUND 180 Third: Belly Dance music is music for erotic dancing and was for a large part produced for the Arabic and Turkish diaspora in the US (Thorne 2011). It was made by immigrants for immigrants and was a trend in music from the 1950s until the 1970s.8 Armenian and Lebanese musicians were also often involved in Belly Dance. During the 1960s the style was adopted in the Arabo-Turkish region via US imports and kicked off many local productions. Due to the influence of developments in US-American music, new instru- ments joined in

activities among Christians in Syria. When asked what he hoped to achieve with the national music, Gabriel Assad answered: My aim was to cause a revolution with music. And I thought I could do it, so that the songs and the music would belong to the people. And I reached this goal and that makes me very happy. I travelled around – through Syria, the whole of Syria, then Israel and Lebanon and taught the poems and music which you now find in Assyrian and Syrian schools. And all these people learned them. Assad’s nephew, Afram Some, (who acted as interpreter during the

, Frustration, Hante, Martial Canterel, Peine Per- due, Selofan oder Sixth June. 18 Projekte wie The Soft Moon oder Cold Cave traten im Rahmen größerer Touren von be- kannten Künstlern – Depeche Mode, Nine Inch Nails – als Vorband auf und wurden dadurch einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit bekannt. Aber auch The KVB oder Lebanon Hano- ver, deren immer größer angelegte Konzerte regelmäßig ausverkauft sind, sind mittler- weile weit über den ›Underground‹ hinaus bekannt. Fallbeispiele | 283 te des Blicks zurück absondert und in die Gegenwart transferiert (vgl. Heidingsfel