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| Glossar der Akronyme
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme
UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNHQ United Nations Head Quarter
UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council
UNI United News of India
UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNIOSIL United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone
UNISFA United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei
UNMEE United Nations
Kowalczuck, the GDR’s MfS “not only
entertained contacts to the PLO, but also to Arab terrorist groups. Hundreds of these
fighters […] had been trained by officers of the MfS.”36 Carlos and his closest partners
were able to move freely between several states of the Eastern Bloc and certain “safe
harbor states” like the PDRY:
“[Carlos] lef t Bagdad in January 1979 because of fear of reprisal and has been
residing mostly in the Socialist countries GDR, Hungary, Bulgaria and the ČSSR.
Exemptions are short visits to the PDRY, Libya, Lebanon and Syria.”37
,” as it “had destroyed Arab
unity,”37 e.g. the Lebanon War of 1982, and emphasizes the condemnation of this
policy by the Communist and Workers’ parties of Bulgaria, the ČSSR, Hungary,
Poland, the USSR, and the GDR on November 25 in 1978.
This example illustrates how Soviet policies and activities regularly engaged a
number of other Eastern Bloc states, most prominently the ČSSR, Hungary, Poland,
and the GDR. As involvement in the Middle East increased, competition between
33 | Halliday reminds us of the connection between the Kremlin’s fear of a U.S. American
(latest access April 15 2014)
Kifner, John, Massacre over Tea: Southern Yemen Conflict, in: The New
York Times, February 9 1986b, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.
(latest access April 15 2014)
Lebanon’s men of letters. The Christian scholars who let Arabic literary revival
of the 19th century, in: Al-Jazeera, Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/
focus/arabunity/2008/01/2008525173546578323.html (26th of December 2012).
Lenon, John, Beautiful Boy, 1982, Retrieved from http
che Liberia bedeutete eine Neuausrichtung der Wirtschaftsbe-
ziehungen auf die Côte d’Ivoire und Frankreich. »French and
Ivoirian-based Lebanese commercial interests have been impor-
tant in supplying the NPFL […] with credit and access to
equipment, in return for business concessions in minerals and
tropical forest products« (Richards 1995: 143).
Guinea verfolgte mit seinem Engagement in Liberia sicher-
heitspolitische und wirtschaftliche Interessen, stützte sich hier-
bei aber nicht nur auf das eigene, staatliche Militär. Zunächst
übernahm die ULIMO im Kern
opened the Congress with a speech clearly declaring the
YSP a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party with close ties to Moscow.4
However, this clear commitment came at a cost to Aden. Scharfenberg quotes
Nicolas Chaoui, former leader of the Lebanese Communist Party, on the matter:
“Abdel Fattah Ismail explained to him, Chaoui that it would depend on the
[financial and political support of the Soviet Union and its Socialist brother
states], whether the vanguard party was to be founded or not.”5
Explicit South Yemeni demands for compensation for actual and perceived loss
Scharfenberg reports of a meeting with the secretary-general of the Communist
Party of Lebanon, Nicolas Chaoui, in June 1977, who shared Ismail’s position on the
matter of the formation of a vanguard with Scharfenberg:
“The socialist states had to acknowledge [the fact that any Western support
for the PDRY would be terminated as soon as the UNFPO was reformed as a
vanguard party]. Ismail explained to [Chaoui] that the formation of a vanguard
party depended on the Soviet Union.”45
However, the Soviet Union clearly had no interest in an escalation of violence within
ambitions,” such as a significant expansion of his sphere of influence. Kramer, 1993, 176.
152 | Choueiri, 2000, 66.
153 | For the role of the “other” with regard to self-identification also see: Taylor, 1994, 47.
154 | Anderson, 1983, 19.
155 | Mann, 1995, 46f.
156 | Kramer, 1993, 177.
157 | Kramer, 1993, 181.
CHAPTER 9. Forging a National Identity in Yemen’s South
one particular author. Born into a Christian Orthodox family in Lebanon, George
Antonius, a Cambridge graduate, served in the British Mandate of Palestine.158
The fact that he