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and Shaping Europäische Frauen in der of Communal Space in South arabischen Welt Thailand Juli 2002, 222 Seiten, September 2002, 204 Seiten, kart., 25,80 €, kart., 31,80 €, ISBN: 3-89942-103-5 ISBN: 3-933127-51-3 Anja Peleikis Klaus E. Müller (Hg.) Lebanese in Motion Phänomen Kultur Gender and the Making of a Perspektiven und Aufgaben der Translocal Village Kulturwissenschaften März 2003, 220 Seiten, März 2003, ca. 200 Seiten, kart., 29,80 €, kart., ca. 25,80 €, ISBN: 3-933127-45-9 ISBN: 3-89942-117-5 Andreas Ackermann, Markus Kaiser (Hg.) Klaus E. Müller (Hg.) Auf

| Glossar der Akronyme UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNHQ United Nations Head Quarter UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council UNI United News of India UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon UNIOSIL United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone UNISFA United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei UNMEE United Nations

Kowalczuck, the GDR’s MfS “not only entertained contacts to the PLO, but also to Arab terrorist groups. Hundreds of these fighters […] had been trained by officers of the MfS.”36 Carlos and his closest partners were able to move freely between several states of the Eastern Bloc and certain “safe harbor states” like the PDRY: “[Carlos] lef t Bagdad in January 1979 because of fear of reprisal and has been residing mostly in the Socialist countries GDR, Hungary, Bulgaria and the ČSSR. Exemptions are short visits to the PDRY, Libya, Lebanon and Syria.”37 The “Carlos

,” as it “had destroyed Arab unity,”37 e.g. the Lebanon War of 1982, and emphasizes the condemnation of this policy by the Communist and Workers’ parties of Bulgaria, the ČSSR, Hungary, Poland, the USSR, and the GDR on November 25 in 1978. This example illustrates how Soviet policies and activities regularly engaged a number of other Eastern Bloc states, most prominently the ČSSR, Hungary, Poland, and the GDR. As involvement in the Middle East increased, competition between 33 | Halliday reminds us of the connection between the Kremlin’s fear of a U.S. American

/battle-for-southern-yemen-how-the-fury-began.html. (latest access April 15 2014) Kifner, John, Massacre over Tea: Southern Yemen Conflict, in: The New York Times, February 9 1986b, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes. com/1986/02/09/world/massacre-with-tea-southern-yemen-at- war.html. (latest access April 15 2014) Lebanon’s men of letters. The Christian scholars who let Arabic literary revival of the 19th century, in: Al-Jazeera, Retrieved from focus/arabunity/2008/01/2008525173546578323.html (26th of December 2012). Lenon, John, Beautiful Boy, 1982, Retrieved from http

- che Liberia bedeutete eine Neuausrichtung der Wirtschaftsbe- ziehungen auf die Côte d’Ivoire und Frankreich. »French and Ivoirian-based Lebanese commercial interests have been impor- tant in supplying the NPFL […] with credit and access to equipment, in return for business concessions in minerals and tropical forest products« (Richards 1995: 143). Guinea verfolgte mit seinem Engagement in Liberia sicher- heitspolitische und wirtschaftliche Interessen, stützte sich hier- bei aber nicht nur auf das eigene, staatliche Militär. Zunächst übernahm die ULIMO im Kern

opened the Congress with a speech clearly declaring the YSP a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party with close ties to Moscow.4 However, this clear commitment came at a cost to Aden. Scharfenberg quotes Nicolas Chaoui, former leader of the Lebanese Communist Party, on the matter: “Abdel Fattah Ismail explained to him, Chaoui that it would depend on the [financial and political support of the Soviet Union and its Socialist brother states], whether the vanguard party was to be founded or not.”5 Explicit South Yemeni demands for compensation for actual and perceived loss

, Scharfenberg reports of a meeting with the secretary-general of the Communist Party of Lebanon, Nicolas Chaoui, in June 1977, who shared Ismail’s position on the matter of the formation of a vanguard with Scharfenberg: “The socialist states had to acknowledge [the fact that any Western support for the PDRY would be terminated as soon as the UNFPO was reformed as a vanguard party]. Ismail explained to [Chaoui] that the formation of a vanguard party depended on the Soviet Union.”45 However, the Soviet Union clearly had no interest in an escalation of violence within or

his “dynastic ambitions,” such as a significant expansion of his sphere of influence. Kramer, 1993, 176. 152 | Choueiri, 2000, 66. 153 | For the role of the “other” with regard to self-identification also see: Taylor, 1994, 47. 154 | Anderson, 1983, 19. 155 | Mann, 1995, 46f. 156 | Kramer, 1993, 177. 157 | Kramer, 1993, 181. CHAPTER 9. Forging a National Identity in Yemen’s South 214 one particular author. Born into a Christian Orthodox family in Lebanon, George Antonius, a Cambridge graduate, served in the British Mandate of Palestine.158 The fact that he