longer be distinguished from the present; the old can no longer be
distinguished from the new. Everything that is produced immediately
becomes a relic of the past (Hartoonian 185).
3 In Present Pasts, Andreas Huyssen talks about the recent emergence of a
memoryculture in North Atlantic societies that he regards as a reaction to
new media technologies and the subsequent loss of lived tradition.
Huyssen believes that “in this prominence of academic ‘mnemo-history,’
memory and musealization together are enlisted as bulwarks against
her mission to the South, she was too busy establishing
herself as a medical doctor and gynecologist in New England to pursue a career as an
author. But we can speculate that what kept her from presenting the diary to a larger
readership was the risk her ideas would have posed for her hard-won career as a doc-
tor. Because it represents the former slaves as the better citizens while accusing the
northern “liberators” of lacking morality, the diary’s message challenged the domi-
nant discourse of the era: as scholars of American memoryculture have argued,
five from Drum-Taps and Sequel”
24 I leave out the fourth edition here that came out in 1867 and contained only six new
poems. Termed “the most chaotic of all six editions,” the fourth edition has been read as
a direct, “ragged” expression of the “social upheaval in the immediate aftermath of the
Civil War” (1998).
25 As Wolfgang Hochbruck has pointed out, the Gettysburg Address was central to the post-
war memoryculture as it was increasingly seen as a re-interpretation of the Declaration
of Independence (2011: 158-59 and 206-07).