Germany 1918/19 and the US-Palmer Raids
Norma Lisa Flores | 127
German Defeat in World War I, Influenza and Postwar Memory
Oliver Haller | 151
SUBJECTIVITIES AND SOCIALMOVEMENTS
Activist Subjectivities and the Charisma of World Revolution
Soviet Communists Encounter Revolutionary Germany, 1918/19
Gleb J. Albert | 181
‘Moral Power’ and Cultural Revolution
Räte geistiger Arbeiter in Central Europe, 1918/19
Ian Grimmer | 205
Simultaneity of the Un-simultaneous
German Social Revolution and Polish National Revolution
in the Prussian East, 1918
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Stefan Berger, Professor of Social History and the History of SocialMovements
at Ruhr-University Bochum, Director of the Institute of SocialMovements and
Executive Chair of the Foundation Library of the Ruhr. Among his most recent
publications are: with Christoph Conrad, The Past as History. National
that soon transformed into unconditional
capitulation. Looking back on these events, their experiences became over laden
by a memory tainted by the shock of defeat, and for them, this defeat and the
revolution became inextricably linked.40
These hopes burned brightly among supporters of the revolution, and histori-
ans have sometimes underestimated their driving force for energizing socialmovements. Moreover, the power of the imaginary, of hope or of anxiety, was
also significantly manifest in the perceptions in other countries in Europe and
(1978): City, Class and Power. London.
Castells, Manuel (1983): The City and the Grassroots. A Cross-Cultural Theory of
Urban SocialMovements. London.
Casula, Carlo Felice (Hg.) (1999): L’Italia dopo la grande trasformazione. Trent’anni
di analisi CENSIS 1966-1996. Rom.
Catanzaro, Raimondo/Luigi Manconi (Hg.) (1995): Storie di Lotta Armata. Bologna.
Cazzullo, Aldo (1998): I ragazzi che volevano fare la rivoluzione. 1968-1978 storia
di Lotta Continua. Mailand.
Centro ricerche politiche economiche e sociali Agostino Novella (CRIPES) (Hg.)
students’ attack on Springer was the first public split in the anticommunist consensus
of the Adenauer years and paved the way for Willy Brandt and the implementation of
56 | Ebd., S. 321.
57 | Zit. n. I. GilcherHoltey: »Mai 68 in Frankreich«, in: dies. (Hg.), 1968 – Vom Ereig
nis (2008), S. 16. Original: Neidhardt, Friedhelm / Rucht, Dieter: »The Analysis of SocialMovements: The State of the Ar t and Some Perspectives for Fur ther Research«, in: Die
ter Rucht (Hg.), Research on SocialMovements: The State of the Ar t in Western
-Begriffs vgl. Sid-
ney Tarrow (2011): Power in Movement. SocialMovements and Contentious Politics. 3.
Aufl. Cambridge u.a., S. 195-214.
7 Giovanni Moro spricht von ‚Pathologien der Erinnerung‘ im Hinblick auf die 1970er Jahre,
vgl. Giovanni Moro (2007): Anni Settanta. Turin, S. 11-24.
8 Tolomelli (2009), S. 431.
9 Friedhelm Neidhardt und Dieter Rucht definieren ‚soziale Bewegung‘ als „[…] an orga-
nized and sustained effort of a collectivity of inter-related individuals, groups and organi-
zations to promote or to resist social change with the use of public protest
’ was indeed one reason why there was such a powerful urge of a return to
‘normality’ and an unwillingness to consider a more substantial reform of di-
verse sectors of society. The revolution had unleashed a new liberal regime with
unprecedented lack of censorship and freedom of speech. This gave space for
new socialmovements, including the homosexual emancipation movement. The
revolution thus was also a movement of citizens and a moment for citizens in
which they could feel both a new sense of empowerment and a sense of disillu-
sionment with high hopes