educators who taught me things I don’t even remember, the ac-
tivists and socialmovements around the world who inspire me to do better and
work harder. It would have been impossible without the internet radicals who
posted memes, pictures, reminders, tweets, and articles that challenged and
changed me. It would have been impossible without the innumerable failures,
mine and others’, that push me to be more accountable. The resistors, parti-
sans, revolutionaries, militants, strikers, and fighters, the mothers, nannies,
nurses, sex workers, students, street artists
EMPOWERMENT, SOZIALE BEWEGUNGEN UND DAS RECHT AUF GESUNDHEIT | 69
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and Abledness, London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Crewe, N. M./Zola, I. K. (Hg.) (1983): Independent
collaboration: first, the political context of an abating Cold War
and the development of more complex international relations; second, the
rise of socialmovements that mobilised novel forms of expertise and cri-
tique; and third, an epistemological revolution that opened up new topics
The Problems of Modern Societies – Epistemic Design around 1970 37
for inquiry, introduced new methodologies, forms of ref lexivity and frames
of analysis, and that made provisions for new roles of science. The notion of
the ‘problem’ – from the problematique to the wicked problem – which
sectionality.”25 For Crenshaw, structural intersectionality refers to the ways in
which the structures of race and gender (and, she is very clear, class and sexu-
ality, and potentially other factors as well) come together to produce a qualita-
tively different modality of oppression than those who face oppression on the
basis of only one factor. Political intersectionality refers to the failures of socialmovements such as the feminist and anti-racist movements, to adequately con-
ceptualize the oppressions they fight in terms that are representative of
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wrote in the introduction to her own volume on dif-
ference, socialmovements, and theories of social transformation, “I cannot
claim to speak for radical movements of Blacks, Latinos, American Indians,
poor people, lesbians, old people, or the disabled. But the political commitment
to social justice which motivates my philosophical reflection tells me that I also
cannot speak without them.” 15 I think of my work in this book, not as speaking
15 | Iris Marion Young, Justice and the Politics of Dif ference (Princeton, N.J: Princeton
University Press, 1990), 14
-Jacobsen, Mikkel (1992): The Emotional Tie. Psychoanalysis, Mimesis, and Af-
fect. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Borch-Jacobsen, Mikkel (1988): The Freudian Subject. Stanford: Stanford University
Borch, Christian; Stäheli, Urs (2008): Gabriel Tarde. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp (in Vorb.).
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Newest SocialMovements“, Cultural Studies 18(5): 716-748.
Derrida, Jacques (2005): On Touching. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Dreyer Hansen, Allan (2007): Sociology Strikes Back: The End of the
the category of class. At
most, it was said, movements around race, gender, sexuality, or class can intersect with
each other, but cannot easily coalesce into a single movement against the power struc-
ture and the capitalist system that, according to Marxists, stands behind it. Thus, the
actual intersectionality of these socialmovements—as opposed to their separateness—
was usually seen as rather limited, both as reality and as possibility. Saying otherwise
ran the danger of falling into the abyss of reductionism or essentialism.55
Anderson’s critique is a
representatives of business, gov-
ernment and the third sector, socialmovements and the public, but to invite
them to participate in research activity as co-producers of knowledge. On
the one hand, it is part of a shift in emphasis from the experimental as a
knowledge-site to the experimental as a social process. On the other hand,
it is also an unequal playing field, in which the nature and characteristics
of the social are being redefined (Marres, Guggenheim and Wilkie 2018). At
the same time, ‘users’ (that is, most of us who engage with digital media as
part of our
included social respect as well as demands for
material things like land and housing. They all share the following features: the
fight for social and legal equality. Often the voiced aims of the socialmovements
focused on the legal rights that had been denied to the marginalized group so
far. However, in all cases, the struggle exceeded the granting of legal rights
and demanded further social equality—to take part in the social life of the
communities without being shunned or having to fear discrimination and
violence. Thus, we can say that the struggle of