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. London and Philadelphia: Whurr Publishers, 2000. Filmer, Paul. “Structures of Feeling and Socio-cultural Formations: The Significance of Literature and Experience to Raymond Wi- liams’s Sociology of Culture.” British Journal of Sociology 54:2 (June 2003). 199-219. Fiske, John. Television Culture. London and New York: Methuen, 1987. Fiske, John. Understanding Popular Culture. London and New York: Routledge, 1991a. Fiske, John. Reading the Popular. London and New York: Routledge, 1991b. Fiske, John. “The Cultural Economy of Fandom.” The Adoring Audi- ence

literary studies department, distancing them- theory” have emerged. They may be, however, summarized by group- ing them into four main “camps”, bearing in mind that the term “critical theory” has more than one source, i.e. tradition. The first approach is sociological, usually harking back to the so-called founding fathers of the sociology of culture like Durkheim, Weber, Simmel, and Mannheim (cf. Jenks 1993, Smith 2000). Second, there is the critical theory of the Frankfurt School with representatives such as Adorno and Horkheimer and, of the so-called young

, intermedia and interdisciplinary approaches to narrative theory” (2002). Having given a brief overview why popular culture, and for quite different reasons, popular fiction, can still be considered to be a prob- 29 The dynamics of the act of reading, and the tension between the pri- vate and the public or the individual and the communal is a vastly ne- glected aspect in reception theory as well as the sociology of culture because “[t]he lonely activity of reading – the interaction between a text and an individual – leads us to ignore the strong communal ele- ment

emergent cultural patters are being articulated in different cultural texts and con- texts. As Paul Jones correctly points out in a recent edition on Wil- liams’s sociology of culture, Williams’s methodology is related to the sociological method of ‘verstehen’, which Dilthey defined as a “sym- pathetic understanding or intuitive grasp of human social and cultural forms – while at the same time insisting that all such studies must be historical” (Dilthey in Jones 2006: 130).39 Both the structure of feeling 39 Max Weber’s sociological approach is based on the method