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Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles in a Globalizing Age
Series: Lettre
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Contents Acknowledgements | 7 1 Introduction | 9 2 Globalization and Its Effects | 15 2.1 Mapping Globalization | 15 2.2 Global Consensus | 18 2.3 Global Controversies | 23 3 Global Cities as Cultural Nodal Points | 27 3.1 Urban Studies | 28 3.2 Cultural Nodal Points | 31 3.3 Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles | 33 4 Cultural Diversity in a Globalizing Age | 37 4.1 Concepts of Identity | 40 4.2 Postcolonial Discourse | 42 4.3 Intra, Inter, Multi, and Trans | 49 4.4 The Melting Pot, Salad Bowl, and Canadian Mosaic | 53

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: The Subversion of Boundaries and the Transformation of the Western Genre (with Stefanie Mueller and Katja Sarkowsky, 2017); and she edited conversations with Cornel West on Black Prophetic Fire, 2014. Dennis Büscher-Ulbrich is Assistant Professor of American Studies and Cultural Studies at Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel. He received his PhD from Universität Hamburg for a dissertation on Bruce Andrews and the problem of political subjectivity in avant-garde poetry and has pub- lished articles and book chapters on (post-)Marxism, critical urban

works, the changing values and attitudes of society are often challenged and dis- cussed in an innovative way before the ‘real’ urban society deals with it. There- fore, the definitions of the ‘real’ city will lay the groundwork for the subsequent discussion of the ‘literary’ global city in contemporary North American litera- ture. 3.1 URBAN STUDIES Global cities are mainly examined with regard to geography, sociology, anthro- pology, and economics but are also of particular interest in cultural studies. Ur- ban studies summarize the collective interests of

points within the discussion of globalization. Chapter 3 places the emphasis on global cities as cultural nodal points, while exploring the interactional relationship of globalization, cultural diversity, and urban space. After introducing the two rivaling movements of urban studies, the traditional Chicago school and the more recent L.A. school, and the main charac- teristics, functions, and qualities of global cities, attention is shifted to the cultur- al significance of urban centers in a global network of flows. In this study, the global cities of interest

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Society in Jamaica, 1770-1820. Ed. Ashcroft et al. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971. 202-205. Brenner, Neil, Roger Keil (eds.). The Global Cities Reader. Oxon: Routledge, 2006. Brenner, Neil. “Global Cities, Glocal States: Global City Formation and State Territorial Restructuring in Contemporary Europe.” The Global Cities Read- er. Eds. Neil Brenner, Roger Keil. London: Routledge, 2006. 259-266. Brenner, Neil. “Stereotypes, Archetypes, and Prototypes: Three Uses of Superla- tives in Contemporary Urban Studies“. City & Community. 2.3. (September 2003): 205

generic and urban-specific mentality acts as this missing link. As a collective of noncon- scious dispositions of thinking, feeling, imagining and acting, mentality exactly serves the “comparative consciousness” (ibid.: 101) sought after as a tool for comparative stud- ies on cities. Critics have persistently acknowledged the mental side of urban culture as an inte- gral part of Urban Studies. Urban sociologists have suggested the model of the city as a state of mind. Mentality also explains the processes scrutinised by cognitive geogra- phers of “how the mind and the

metaphor for perception as a process which orders and stabilises urban experience in a meaningful way. Legibility of urban space has been an ongoing concern in Urban Studies (e.g. cf. Lynch 1977: 9; Sharpe & Wallock 1987: 16-17; Balshaw & Kennedy 2000: 1; Amin & Thrift 2002: 7; Sieverts 2003: 52). The legibility of the encoded cityscape stresses how images condition urbanites’ responses to the city and play an important part in shaping their understanding of the metropolis. Therefore, New Urban Geographers, in regard to the semiotic notion of culture in which the text

offer myriad possibilities to their inhabitants; it is “a set of potentials” (Amin & Thrift 2002: 4). In that respect, the key terms employed by Urban Studies have been remarkably constant: anonymity, alienation, disorientation, decay on the one hand and change, freedom, mobility on the other. Claude S. Fischer (1984: 16-19) identifies four basic polarities that organ- ise Western discourse of city life, namely nature/art, familiarity/strangeness, commu- nity/individualism, and tradition/change while Markus Schroer (2006: 228) lists five main oppositions: urbanity

attention to the various fields anddisciplines whichmake use of heterotopia such as art and architecture,media studies, death studies, digital studies, education and health studies, gender, sexuality and queer studies, literature, market- ing and tourism, museum and library studies, political and economic geography, urban studies, religion, as well as theatre, performance and music (P. Johnson, “Three Bibliographies”). 48 Section One: Theoretical Perspectives everything tends to take on heterotopian traits” (6). Some of the spaces at the cen- tre of the upcoming analysis