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4 Hyperepic Turn (since the 1970s) “[A] video game is a set of rules as well as a fictional world.” JESPER JUUL1 GAME ECONOMICS During the seventies digital games left the confines of American universities and research institutions, which they had occupied since the fifties. First manufactur- al methods of organization developed in both production and distribution, fol- lowing the example set by the producers of arcade machines. Industrial methods of organization following Hollywood’s studio model were introduced in the ear- ly eighties. The

120 ARCHEOLOGY OF COMPUTING A PRE-DIGITAL MECHANISMS IN CONTEXT 1960S/1970S While the set of rules and protocols explicitly or implicitly established by conceptual artists may exist on a theoretical or abstract level, hence embodying one of the key mind-sets of conceptualism,5 the use of such tools in combination with photography by conceptual artists and photographers indirectly connected with conceptualism (e.g., Hans-Peter Feldmann or the Bechers) yields a tangible visual out- come. Comparing such a visual outcome with a similar strategy not

Family Change and Welfare Reform in the United States Since the 1970s Maurizio Vaudagna, Università del Piemonte Orientale Since its origins in the second half of the 19th century, the history of American welfare has interacted with that of the family. Chiara Saraceno has stressed that “[a] significant relationship exists between social policy and civil law definitions of who or what constitutes family” (229). Poverty and need were particularly frequent in domestic environments, and the family characterized the origins of the social provision in many ways: as an

110 Design, Development and its Legacies: A Perspective on 1970s Design Culture and its Anthropological Intents Alison J. Clarke In the century to come, the design professions, with industrial design in the vanguard, will rededicate their efforts toward the final emancipation of all humans from drudgery and social and economic subjugation [...] human beings in a new Renaissance will, once again, become the masters of their environment as the race achieves, finally, that ultimate form of equilibrium known as peace.1 From the late 1960s to the close of

Nonsimultaneity of the Simultaneous Internationalism and Universalism in Postwar Art Music until the 1970s Christian Utz The music history of the twentieth century is rad- ically polyphonic. It disintegrates into different cultures, which no Zeitgeist can mediate. (Meyer 2011: 27; my translation) 1. INTRODUCTION: SIMULTANEITIES VS. NONSIMULTANEITIES IN POSTWAR MUSIC HISTORY In this chapter, I review the multiple forms in which composers, musicians, and musicologists conceived of and discussed the phenomenon of global music mak- ing and

1970s Partisan Epics as Western Films. The Question of Genre and Myth in Yugoslav Partisan Film PETER STANKOVIĆ INTRODUCTION In recent years, Yugoslav Partisan films have witnessed a notable revival of interest. They are shown on various TV channels, many of them are also available on DVD reissues and YouTube, while their new audience is in many instances too young to have actually experienced socialist Yugoslavia first hand. It would seem that the renaissance of Yugoslavian Partisan films is related to the general disappointment with capitalism, which

177 STYLE AND SOCIETY — ISTANBUL 'S MUSIC SCENE IN THE 1960S AND 1970S: MUSICAL HYBRIDISM, THE GAZINO, AND SOCIAL TOLERANCE Cornelia Lund and Holger Lund Introduction Like many countries all over the world, Turkey was hit by the first wave of Anglo-American pop-rock music in the 1950s and 1960s. Various styles of pop-rock were appreciated in Turkey; they were, however, not simply copied but combined with local, indigenous elements in many different ways. This led to the birth of musical hybrids, especially Anatolian Rock, Arabesk, and Belly

The Dynamics of Unfamiliarity in the German-Polish Border Region in 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s Bianca Szytniewski Unfamiliarity indicates the feeling of strangeness that results from not having knowledge or experience of someone or something. The term “un- familiarity,” in a personal and spatial context, is best understood by look- ing at the interdependent relationship between two counterparts, such as the familiar and the unfamiliar, the insider and the outsider, us and them, or the acquaintance and the stranger. Something that is familiar to one person

From Agrarian Experiments to Population Displacement: Iraqi Kurdish Collective Towns in the Context of Socialist ›Villagization‹ in the 1970s MÉLISANDE GENAT INTRODUCTION In an article entitled »Zakho Resorts« published in the newspaper al-ᶜIrāq on 18 April 1978, Iraqi readers were served an enthusiastic description of the latest developments in housing construction and economic improvement in the region around the small Kurdish town of Zakho. Particular attention in the article was devoted to the seven new collective towns (labeled as qura

Planning death: Debates on euthanasia, end of life care and living wills in Germany since the 1970s ISABELLA JORDAN Neither my birth nor my death can appear to me as experiences of my own . . . . I can . . . apprehend myself only as ‘already born’ and ‘still alive’—I can apprehend my birth and my death only as prepersonal horizons. MAURICE MERLEAU-PONTY Public debates on dying have been conducted in Germany since the late 1960s, making an issue of the medical and institutional circumstances un- der which people in Germany die. A prevalent