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57Speared Heads Hans Körner Speared Heads. Portraits as Things in 20th–Century Sculpture A Beheaded Mongolian Rebel In a letter to Friedrich Karl Benndorf from August 26, 1931, the Expressionist poet Alfred Mombert corrected the dating of his portrait: “The ‘Haller’ bust is not from 1906, as it seems I told you, but the spring of 1904, when I was in Rome.”1 The young Swiss sculptor Hermann Haller and his friend, the painter Karl Hofer, had gone to Rome for a study visit, their trip made possible by the support of Theodor Reinhart, and they lived together

1 The lock-and-key analogy and its influence on 20 th century biochemistry The present study will focus on the “molecularization” of biochemistry – i.e. the establishment of the view that biochemical phenomena can be un- derstood and controlled by investigating the structure of macromolecules and their functions in various kinds of biological processes. 1 This view be- came a cornerstone for the development of molecular biology and molecu- lar medicine in the 1950s and 60s. Yet, despite the co-dependencies of the process of “molecularization

87 Rumor—More or Less at Home: On Theories of News Value in the 20th Century IRMELA SCHNEIDER I. On January 24th, 2006 spiegel online headlined the story “Two Ger- mans in the Grip of Kidnappers” (“Geiselgangster”) reporting: “According to information from the Leipziger Volkszeitung, both men are em- ployed by Cryotec, a company in Bennewitz near Wurzen. The two were sup- posedly only in their third workday at their new job. The director of the com- pany […] indirectly confirmed this case of kidnapping.” It continued: “Roughly three hours

189Encounters with Masks Christian Kravagna Encounters with Masks: Counter-Primitivism in 20th–Century Black Art The idea for this paper came while I was visiting an exhibition at the Tate Liverpool in the spring of 2010. “Afro Modern: Journeys through the Black Atlantic” successfully traced, in the field of the visual arts, the veracity of Paul Gilroy’s famous argument that the “Black Atlantic” represents a counter-culture to Modernity.1 I was struck by a specific constellation of two art works mounted next to each other on a wall in one of the first

91 Perspectives of the Cultural History in Latvia: The 20th century and beyond In the course of the 20th 1 - culture history 2 since the turn of the 20th talk of several turns 3 4 cultural history it is, perhaps, 5 - the 20th ad hoc 1 IGGERS 2 SCHORN-SCHÜTTE ULBRICHT, 2003. 4 DANIEL, 5 KASCHUBA Mârti ,nš Mintaurs 92 th 6 - th 7 - often than not took the form of replacement transition th th - de iure - - , 2001, p. 405-426. , 2000, p. 40-42. PLAKANS Perspectives of the Cultural History in Latvia 93 pro forma - - - - I - - - th - 10 11 - 12 GARLEFF HEHN

The Romance of Violence and the Crisis of mid-20th Century America Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY C. STEPHEN JAEGER This essay is part of a projected book, The Romance of Violence, on ideas of violence in intellectual and academic culture in Europe and America since the nineteenth century and their expression in popular culture. The argument is, in part, that intellectual, academic and popular culture co-participate in a ‘culture of violence’. The basic question of the book is: why do we cultivate violence? That we do, is beyond doubt

Planning Modernism: Growing the Organic City in the 20th Century HAROLD L. PLATT I. INTRODUCTION: SEEING THE METROPOLIS The history of city planning demands a mode of inquiry that simultaneously encompasses many points of view. To understand urban change during the twentieth century requires the inclusion of the conflicting visions of the planners, policymakers, and the grassroots. Or as the British scholar Alison Ravitz explains, “Once the focus is shifted from conscious planning to the urban envi- ronment, it is necessary and inevitable to

Alternative Narratives of Aging in Russian 20th-Century Literature Valentin Rasputin’s and Jurij Trifonov’s Old Characters ILARIA REMONATO Go, old man, go now, don’t be afraid, ’cause everybody will have his own reason, and a justification, too, even though we’ll never know which one. Van Loon is quietly preparing for his last journey now, his luggage ready for a long time, as every prudent man or better, the luggage, the usual lifelong luggage of a simple or wise man, that is little or nothing, and he’ll really go to a place or a story of his

9 Horst Pöttker Successful Integration? Media and Polish Migration in the German Empire at the Turn of the 20th Century For some time now, German politicians have claimed that their country is cosmopolitan, that it open-mindedly accepts immigrants of foreign descent and culture and encourages their integration into society. Such claims have become popular since politicians discovered that Germany has been a country distinguished by immigration for years and since they discovered their country’s need for immigrants in order to maintain its economic and

phenomenon” (20). It should be added that this relationship between artwork and viewer is being discussed here with specific reference to art his- tory. I emphasize this because the history of 20th-century art is marked by a similar view whose influence is felt not only in interpretation but also in the production of art itself – the view that an artwork is only realized in the eye of the beholder/viewer. Pächt, by contrast, does not deny art material- ity or reality beyond its perception. Instead, he is interested in the character of art history as a historical discipline