Human Equality in Modern Chinese
Polit ical Thought
Human equality is one of the most important ideas in modern political
theory, demarcating the change from older conceptions based on the ex-
cellence of certain individuals in accordance with metaphysical, religious
or traditional beliefs. Human equality, however, is still a highly disputed
idea. From a logical point of view, the uncertainty results from both the
polyvalent logical structure of the concept of equality and its prescriptive
usage. Equality is a tripartite
to allow challengers to challenge the
former leader in a commonly agreed cyclical ritual.
As far as Relation is concerned, it is vital to quote back Britton before I highlight
clearly the si-milarities of Relation and a truly inclusive democracy:
Conclusion. Toward Post-Apartheid Critisism 253
“Relation is (…) a relation of equality with and respect for the other as different from
oneself. It applies to individuals but more especially to o-ther cultures and other
societies. It is nonhierarchical and nonreductive; that is, it does not try to impose
a universal value
. (…) This renaming is totally blotting
out our history. Instead of thinking about King Dingane20 fighting the British, we
now think of reconciliation with the same enemy who killed him (Mhlongo, 2004,
What Dworkin complains about is the artificial equality between whites and blacks
which blurs the boundaries between them and accomplishes the impossibility of
opacity. In so doing, it blocks the realization of Relation. “Racism in reverse” is the
next obstacle to the materialization of Relation in post-apartheid narrative.
III-2-3-3- Racism in reverse
sleep when they tell [them]” (Duiker, 2001, p. 103).
If the “apartment” (society) has to remain in peace, the body needs to be lib-
erated rather than being ever controlled, silenced and punished (Foucault, 1975).
Because when the boomerang effects of the controlled body are repetitively intro-
verted, frustration drives that body to “resort to violence like some guys do when
they are corned” (Duiker, 2001, p. 296).The said violence has its roots in the attempt
to seek equality among the people in the society. In the form of interrogations
Tshepo articulates this
oppression. Relation draws
its raison d’être from hegemony or oppression. In other words, hegemony and op-
pression made Relation imaginable so that it would not be hyperbolic to consider
Relation as an accomplished weapon against all kinds of oppressions.
Celia M. Britton sustains this argument about Relation when she writes that:
Relation is in the first place a relation of equality with and respect for the Other
as different from oneself. It applies to individuals but more especially to other cul-
tures and other societies. It is nonhierarchical and nonreductive; that
category of ‘born free’ generation as a problematic definition to keep
people blinded about the real face of the effects of colonialism and apartheid” (p. 4).
They carved the notion of ‘born-free’ generation providing it with the goal to match
with the generation of those born in times of democracy, equality and where racial
privilege is annihilated (p. 4).The birth around 1994 deserved therefore to be consid-
ered as a privilege as compared to “the so-called lost generation” the “Big Brothers”
as Njomane calls them (p. 61), who had the bad luck of being too much
generation of those born after the end of apartheid era. Children born in 1994 are
said to have been in times of equality, where racial privilege has been annihilated.
I was born in 1991, exactly two years and six months before South Africa held its
first democratic elections (Azania, 2014, p. 4).
36 Nelson Mandela, “Enthronization’s Speech” (Pretoria, May 10th 1994). Cf. www.s
as.upenn.edu/african studies/articles gen/inaugural speech 17984.html.
Idiosyncrasy of South African Post-Apartheid Narrative 95
Thedistance she keeps by recounting what people say about her