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Professionalität, Körperlichkeit und Anerkennung in brasilianischen Waxing Studios Berlins

-cultural process, is in itself no salient part of this analysis. Nevertheless, it may say something important about the temp- tations and prospects inherent in the concept of historical consciousness. What unites the opponents is a belief in the need to regain a lost his- torical consciousness in order to solve various problems and crises of modernity, and to provide a “post-modern” individual and society with a more “vertical” identity, by promoting integration into processes of meaning considered time-transgressing, such as ethnification, European- ization and

other, laughing in complicity. Visibly annoyed, Rosa cried out: ›¡Hey, girls, this game is both for Moroccans and for Catalans!, you must pass the ball to Anna, Cinta and Sarah‹ (English origin), who still haven’t received it…‹.« Such verbalizations solidified excluding ethnification processes that virtually made »Catalan« identity compatible with and assimilative to socially privileged cultural origins (European and affluent Latin American countries) but incom- patible with depreciated cultural backgrounds (in my study Moroccan, Sub- Saharan, and, less clearly

descendants, she recognizes different tactics of “self- ethnification.” For many migrants recruited as Gastarbeiter (“guest workers”), she writes, “joining together on their own terms in migrants’ clubs and religious organizations” served as “place[s] of communal support.”17 Today, these clubs are often viewed as “symbol[s] of self-seclusion and withdrawal from society.”18 Younger generations of migrants or descendants of migrants “no longer [feel] directly addressed by such forms of ethnic self-representation.”19 Instead, these 15 See the highly interesting study


.2:39. Print. Edwards, Holly. “A Million and One Nights: Orientalism in America, 1870-1930.” Noble Dreams, Wicked Pleasures: Orientalism in America, 1870-1930. Ed. Holly Edwards and Brian T. Allen. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000. 11-57. Print. Eide, Elizabeth. “Strategic Essentialism and Ethnification: Hand in Glove?” Nor- dicom Review 31.2 (2010): 63-78. Print. Elbow, Peter. “The Uses of Binary Thinking.” JAC 13.1 (1993): 51-78. Web. 11 Oct. 2011. El-Haj, Nadia A. “Edward Said and the Political Present.” American Ethnologist 32.4 (2005): 538-55. Print

: Science Communication 29 (4): 413-434. Day, Dennis (1994): »Tang’s dilemma and other problems: ethnification processes at some multicultural workplaces.« In: Pragmatics 4 (3): 315-336. Day, Dennis (1998): »Being ascribed and resisting membership of an ethnic group.« In: Antaki, Charles/Widdicombe, Sue (Hrsg.): Identities in Talk. London: Sage: 151-170. Day, Dennis (2006): »Ethnic and social groups and their linguistic categorization.« In: Bührig, Kristin/ten Thije, Jan D. (Hrsg.): Beyond Misunderstanding. Linguis- tic Analyses of Intercultural Communication

practical (Boccagni 2009b). In this process, the migrants’ ethnicity is held to be an all-encompassing variable, which is assumed to account for both their “typical” behaviors and their differential treatment within the receiv- ing society (ibid.). Researchers have used the term “ethnicization” (at times also “ethnification”, see Lamura et al. 2010: 8) to refer to the segmentation of the care and domestic work sectors on the basis of ethnicity/nationality (Catarino/Oso 2000: 168; VV.AA. 2004: 44; Santamaría 2009: 87; Hrženjak 2012: 45; 50); this segmen- tation is

Orvar Löfgren shows (2000) how in the 1960s and 1970s, homogenization and nationalization was inscribed in the everyday life of Swedes. In this – as he calls it – “ethnification” of Swedish culture, lists of “typical Swedish” items were produced, the aim of which was to represent some imagined characteristics of being Swedish and belonging to Swedish society: In the media, Swedish culture was reified into lists of favourite culture traits or a certain ‘Swedish mentality’. As Jonas Frykman has shown, the narratives of Swedishness very much reflected the new