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5 Human Rights Accountability at the World Bank In the present chapter, I set the stage for the two following empirical case studies. Both case studies focus on transnational movement activism toward the World Bank. In Section 5.1, I introduce the World Bank as an international organization and, specif- ically, its activities as a multilateral development bank (MDB). Then, I lay ground for my case studies by translating the concept of human rights accountability into World Bank language. In concrete terms, I establish the intimate connection between human rights

1 Human Rights Accountability as a minimum threshold of MDB Legitimacy Different disciplines study human rights from varying angles. For instance, lawyers en- gage in debates regarding the legal status and interpretation of human rights, scholars of cultural studies may debate what human rights mean within different cultural con- texts and sociologists are concerned with the social conditions for their realization. In the following, I adopt the perspective of a political theorist and seek to ground the de- mand for human rights from a normative point of view. Yet

Human Rights in Practice The Life and Work of Helen Bamber RACHEL WITKIN 1. INTRODUCTION From 1945 until her death in 2014, Helen Bamber worked therapeutically with thousands of displaced and traumatised people who had suffered tor- ture, human trafficking, slavery and war. She learned from the individual circumstances of each person, adapting her unique Model of Integrated Care to meet their needs. Her approach to her work and methods of practice are discussed in the lecture paper: ›Therapists as Advocates: A Conversa- tion with Helen Bamber‹1

Intersex and Human Rights 1 Vincent Guillot SUMMARY According to a statement by Luxembourg’s political parties of September 2012 there are no intersex people in Luxembourg. This is a surprising assessment since there are intersex people all over the world. One reason for this invisibility of intersex people is that also in the 21st century society is still marked by sex and gender binary and heterosexuality. Anyone who cannot or will not fit into to these paradigms is regarded as abnormal and has to be aligned. Children are still operated on to align them

Dissonances and Resonances

Gender Identities and Human Rights1 Jean-Paul Lehners SUMMARY In the light of continuing discrimination against trans people this article ex- plores the question which human rights are violated when trans persons still see themselves subjected to extensive stigmatization. The contribution discusses the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights as well as the Yogyakarta Principles and ends with eleven closing remarks that outline a way forward for taking necessary steps to reduce still prevalent discrimination against trans and

Normative Profile, Conflicts and Implementation

179 Human Rights and Exile-Tibetan Polit ics STEPHANIE RÖMER Nowadays politics, the topics of human rights and Tibet are in- separably connected. Even though the issues are not always on our screens, since the 1980s the international media report at regular in- tervals about human rights abuses in Tibet. Documentary films, radio programs, reports in magazines and newspapers and speeches by Tibetan former political prisoners give evidence of human rights violations in Tibet. Data on the human rights situa- tion that are used in these reports are provided by

159 Translations of Human Rights. Tibetan Contexts1 JAN-ULRICH SOBISCH AND TRINE BROX Introduct ion In the announcement of the symposium “Buddhism and Human Rights,“ the participants had been invited to look for elements and aspects of Buddhism that could contribute to a discussion of the principles of universal human rights. The implication was, accord- ing to an accompanying letter, that we should search for such ele- ments within the traditional, doctrinal foundation of Buddhist tra- ditions that would allow traditional Buddhist societies to approach Western