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Authoritarian Right-Wing Populism as Masculinist Identity Politics. The Role of Affects Birgit Sauer 1. Introduction Since the turn of the century, Europe, but also other regions in the world, have been confronted with the growth and emergence of right-wing populist, nation- alist, and authoritarian parties and organizations. In Hungary and Poland, na- tionalist right-wing parties in government have started to transform their coun- tries into so-called ‘illiberal democracies.’ The Austrian Freedom Party FPÖ (Frei- heitliche Partei Österreich) pushed its partner

Chapter 10: Plurinational Afrobolivianity on the Ground and Built Identity Politics La Casa Cultural Afro Cala Cala and the Centro de Interpretación de la Cultura Afroboliviana The project I will address in the following sections is a community tourism pro- ject that people from Cala Cala were developing with assistance from the IDB (In- teramerican Development Bank) and the Coripata Municipal Government in the framework of the PNTC (Programa Nacional de Turismo Comunitario, National Com- munity Tourism Program). The project initially consisted of funding the

Identity Politics as an Expression of European Citizenship Practice: Participation of Transnational Migrants in Local Political Conflicts MICHAEL JANOSCHKA Political Participation of Retired Migrants in Southern Spain and the Emergence of Local Political Conflicts The increasing migration of retired northern Europeans to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean, mainly to Spain, is a remarkable phenomenon within the con- text of European integration. In contrast to traditional labour migrants, the key protagonists of these movements can be characterised

.), Identity: Community,Culture,Difference (London 1990); Stuart Hall, Paul du Gay (eds.), Questions of Cultural Identity (London 1996). 98 Beyond the Mirror commodification, consumer culture has turned it against the individual.”11 This had already been stated in similar but far more political terms in 1992 by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, who calls herself a “decolonized subconti- nental”. In Acting Bits/Identity Talk, she discusses the identity politics of the (de-)colonialized in terms of their complicity in current forms of imperial- ism, prompted by the Gulf War: “Our


flows, identity politics in the conflict between the global and the local, new media technologies and the media cultures emerg- ing from them. In the view of visual culture studies, art history represented elitist western traditions that manifested themselves in a hierarchical con- cept of “high” art versus “low” popular culture, in a colonializing view of the art of other cultures, in the mythologization of the (male) artist, in the per- 8 Beyond the Mirror petuation of a history of styles associated with national traditions, and in an inability to respond to the

assumption of social and cultural constructivism. This implies a critique of the identity politics of “minorities” that is already familiar: “An acute prob- lem within minoritarian cultural politics is the tendency to dramatize and to valorize authentic expressions of the minority in question: the minority is thought of as embodied in a particularly radical or foundational way,”7 a position also known as essentialism that insists on authenticity of identity beyond the shaping influence of culture – identity in aspic, as Gayatri Spivak has called it. For Bryson, then, it

- standing the response to visual media of both individuals and groups. … Like the other approaches mentioned above, it hopes to reach beyond the tradi- tional confines of the university to interact with people’s everyday lives.”45 This makes clear the extent to which Mirzoeff derives his motivation from the militant identity politics of the 1980s and ‘90s, and his desire to conduct politically engaged studies for “people’s lives”. Such a desire is often accom- panied by a denial of the difference between theory and practice. Wanting to bridge this gap brings with it the


Brennan,Mar- tin Jay (eds.) Vision in Context. Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Sight (New York 1996), 47-61. Copjec, Joan, “The Orthopsychic Subject: Film Theory and the Reception of Lacan” in October 49 (1989), 53-71. Crary, Jonathan, Techniques of the Observer. On Vision and Modernity in the Nine- teenth Century (Cambridge 1990). Crenshaw, Kimberlé W., “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color” in Stanford Law Review 53, no. 6 (1991), 1241-1299. Cronan, Todd, “Neoliberal Art History.” Radical Philosophy

history have shown that the dialogical gaze leads a marginal exis- tence in the methodological thinking of the discipline (Riegl, Pächt, Olin). For visual culture studies, on the other hand, my readings show the problem- atic reception of the Lacanian model of the gaze. Whereas the Lacanian gaze demonstrates the illusionary character of self-identity, visual culture stud- 8. Questions of Ethics 207 ies basically turns it into its opposite, the theoretical affirmation of identity- politics. The narcissistic circle – a critique This rewriting of Lacan is a central

visuality as a factor in identity. As will be seen later, the way visual culture studies have taken up the Lacanian model of the gaze is indebted to its one-dimensional reception by film studies in so far as it, too, tends to take Lacan’s metaphors of the gaze literally. The reason for this may well be the political agenda of visual culture studies with regard to identity politics. Identities cannot be affirmed and reassured through an awareness of lack in the subject; on the contrary, the strategy of identity poli- tics needs to reinforce the “agency known as the ego