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10. Securitization Theory: Legitimacy in Security Politics 10.1. LEGITIMACY IN SECURITIZATION THEORY Directly and in the short term repression against terrorist groups can only diminish their resources – therefore its counter-intended effect can only take place in the long run. Furthermore, the counter-intended effect of re- pression is only conceivable in connection with the security discourse of the terrorist groups’ opponents. In order to understand this counter-intended effect I present securitization theory which deals with the question of

1 Human Rights Accountability as a minimum threshold of MDB Legitimacy Different disciplines study human rights from varying angles. For instance, lawyers en- gage in debates regarding the legal status and interpretation of human rights, scholars of cultural studies may debate what human rights mean within different cultural con- texts and sociologists are concerned with the social conditions for their realization. In the following, I adopt the perspective of a political theorist and seek to ground the de- mand for human rights from a normative point of view. Yet

development and daily work of the CoR than some may have thought, the Committee has also had to grapple with the even more fundamental question of the extent to which a purely consultative body can contribute in a significant manner at all to building genuine multi-level governance (Domorenok 2009). Against the background of the recent 196 Justus Schönlau EU crises, which have raised both longstanding and new questions of identity and legitimacy regarding the European integration project, the present chapter will ad- dress some of the CoR’s activities beyond its

project PLATO “The Post-Crisis Legitimacy of the Euro- pean Union”, which brings together in a inter-disciplinary fashion 15 PhD students across 9 European universities. My main research interest is the social integration of the European continent, especially following the debt crisis and refugee crisis, My broad research interests include political theory as well as qualitative methods, borders, identity politics and the role of emotions in politics. I have an education as both a political theorist and social anthropologist, from Sciences Po Lille, the Uni- versity of

, let alone EU supranational governance. It is not surprising that in recent years much of the political and public discourse on European integration was accompanied by reference to a crisis of legitimacy of the EU political project. It is in this context that regions have yet again received more attention as potential facilitators of Eu- ropean democracy. By strengthening the role of regions in the EU political process, the argument runs, ‘higher’ levels of governance could profit from the strong levels of identification as well as their expertise in policy

gains in legitimacy, with participants leaning towards a concentric circles identity- mix. Laboratories of European Social Integration In this multi-layered construction, ‘Europe’ is not a self-chosen category of identi- fication, which contrasts with the intense usage inhabitants of Strasbourg make of their European citizenship. In the scenario for our discussion, families were invited to order pictures of the city’s iconic landmarks from those they were most attached to those they were least attached to. Interestingly enough, the two pictures illus- trating European

. Reflections and sce- narios for the Eu27 by 2025, 1 March 2017, COM(2017)2025. 3 See: Report of the Task Force on Subsidiarity, Proportionality and ‘Doing LessMore Efficiently’, 10 July 2018. (CoR 2019b) 232 Ulrike Guérot years of permanent crisis – economic and financial crisis, euro and sovereign debt crisis, Ukraine conflict, refugee crisis, Brexit – have left deep marks and further undermined the already precarious legitimacy of the EU. Significantly, the Commission’s white paper and the final report of the Subsi- diarity Task Force do not mention the EU’s democratic

–114. Peters, Bernhard (2005): “Public discourse, identity and the problem of democratic legitimacy.” In: Eriksen Erik O. (ed.): Making the European Polity : Reflexive Integration in the EU, Routledge Studies on Democratizing Europe, London: Routledge, pp. 84–123. Pohl, John (2001): “Regional Identity.” In: International Encyclopedia of Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 12917–12922. Reckwitz, Andreas (2017): Die Gesellschaft der Singularitäten: ZumStrukturwandel der Moderne, Berlin: Suhrkamp. Reeskens, Tim/Hooghe, Marc (2010): “Beyond the civic–ethnic dichotomy: investi

European Identity.” In: Comparative Political Studies 36/10, pp. 1148–1179. Bruter, Michael (2008): “Legitimacy, Euroscepticism & Identity in the European Union – Problems of Measurement, Modelling & Paradoxical Patterns of Influ- ence.” In: Journal of Contemporary European Research 4/4, pp. 273–285. Capello, Roberta (2018): “Cohesion Policies and the Creation of a European Identity: The Role of Territorial Identity.” In: JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies 56/3, pp. 489–503. Chacha, Mwita (2013): “Regional Attachment and Support for European Integra- tion.” In

Wissenschaftliche Arbeit zwischen Berufshabitus und sozialer Abhängigkeit