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David Anderson ➔ Participation Attracts: Participation Binds 19 ➔ Participation Attracts – Participation Binds David Anderson David Anderson öffnet den Blick für eine historische Bestands- aufnahme zur Genese englischer Museen und ihrer Aufgaben. Er fordert, dass Museumsleute sich heute wieder an die ur- sprünglichen Ziele erinnern sollten, Toleranz und Verständnis für ein breites Publikum zu fördern und damit Vorurteile über- winden zu helfen. Ein solches demokratisches Museumsverständnis erfordert besucherorientierte Ausstellungen. Nur die Museen, die

8 Results and Discussion Simply looking at individuals acts of political participation, such as marching in a demonstration or signing an e-petition, is not enough to understand how people’s participation repertoires are influenced by ICT. Indeed, as information, communi- cation and participation are all mutually dependent and interactive, one also has to research people’s information and communication practices. Consequently, one focus of my research is on participants’ information practices, and their practice in terms of navigation and sense-making where

Technology - Mediation - Collectivity

2 State of Research In this chapter, I look at the two main research areas that this book draws on and contributes to: political participation, and the Internet and politics. As there are comparatively few cultural anthropologists working in either area, this chapter outlines the potential contribution that an anthropological gaze can make.1 The cultural anthropological perspective differs here to political or media studies perspectives insofar as it sees the everyday of the users/actors as central, and is therefore only indirectly interested in media

144 | Political Participation in the Digital Age means, and there are a lot of new kind of technologies that will enhance this process. So, we don’t know where it’s gonna end, but we’re already that far along that we have to start catching up politically, you know, systematically, to that new way of thinking.130 8.4 Political Participation in the Digital Age After elaborating on information and communication practices as prerequisites for political participation, this final analysis chapter concentrates on political par- ticipation. The chapter starts with an

your idea, to be active and promote it outside the system as well”.32 Similarly, Strömbäck et al. found a “positive relationship between a social media news repertoire and both offline and online participation” (16). This effect was only observed with Social Media, and not with the online use of more tradi- tional news outlets, suggesting that social networking characteristics “are more mobilizing than traditional online or offline news”, both for modes of online and offline political participation (16). 8.3 Communication within Online Participation Tools

190 | Political Participation in the Digital Age deliberative aspects of democracy, as is the case for Iceland and what Kristínn was hinting at. Or political disinterest could simply mean that citizens are relatively satisfied with the status quo. For Friesland’s press secretary Klug, this is a legit- imate position to say ‘I only participate in the elections because I feel that is my civil duty, but right now I would rather like to mow the lawn or lay on the couch and watch sport on TV instead of participating through LiquidFriesland’.217 8.4.3.3 Conclusion

Introduction: Participation and Relation SAMANTHA SCHRAMM In 1969, the American artist Allan Kaprow participated in an experimental workshop at the educational public television sender WGBH. His telehap- pening Hello was originally conceived as an extended form of a happening, in which, through the modalities of closed circuit television, different per- sons could interact with the TV-studio at WGBH in real time from five lo- cations in Boston. Among the people that would answer the calls from the external locations, being connected through 27

Reduction and Participation Stefan Rieger Three years ago, researchers at the secretive Google X lab in Mountain View, Cali- fornia, extracted some 10 million still images from YouTube videos and fed them into Google Brain—a network of 1,000 computers programmed to soak up the world much as a human toddler does. Af ter three days looking for recurring pat- terns, Google Brain decided, all on its own, that there were certain repeating cate- gories it could identify: human faces, human bodies and … cats. (Jones 2014: 146) 1. Deep Learning By this point, talk of

55 FORMS OF COOPERATION / PARTICIPATION Forms of Cooperation / Participation deal with the social and political dimension of design. In the 1970s, Victor Papanek coined the term Social Design; he called for a radical decentralisation and democratisation of de- sign. Understood as an innovative practice that could lead to social transform- ation, the specifications of design should be determined by social needs. Similar critical and participatory positions like Enzo Mari’s project Autopro- gettazione transfer the power of industrial production structures with