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Zur Produktion einer Erfolgsgeschichte in der deutschen Geschichtskultur

related to the movement from centralized and rigorously planned economies to market-oriented ones as well as to a subtle transition from traditional values – which may be identified in a country’s brand – to liberal values instead. Some semi- nal shifts occurred in the process of defining and implementing creative industries, which have become principles of contemporary policies man- ifested in a range of structural changes, “changing terms under which governments direct funding to the cultural sector; the globalization of cultural markets; competition for

-democratic state, primarily because it would install full control: “we want state intervention to regulate rela- tions between labor and capital”.31 This is supposed to be the basis of the planned economy Ljotić advocated: “We are against liberal capitalism, injustices, disorder. We seek the intervention of the state. In contrast to the liberal economy, we advo- cate the zadruga-type, organic, national economy where all the relations are regu- lated.”32 Another important point for this chapter is the fact that the right wing also as- sumed Serbia had an authentic, traditional

.). Considering that there had been virtually no labor market under radical Maoist socialism and, at least in theory, no one worked outside the socialist planned economy until the late 1970s, this steady and rapid growth of a private labor market from zero to the 126 million individuals in the urban private sector plus the millions of peasants engaged in private farming constitute the most radical shift leading to the individualization of Chinese society. To take these initiatives, individuals had to face the political risks of being labeled anti-socialist and to run the

would be decided by the market, not by a bureaucratic writ. The allocation of re- sources complies with the logic of the planned economy. Ideas, which lead to academic projects, as a rule are not spontaneously inspired by academic practices or contemplations but by whims in a bureaucrat’s mind. Scholars have to submit themselves to the erratic, nonprofessional management of government funds, which are virtually the sole source of funding. What’s more, government funds lopsidedly go to projects in- volving issues related to official ideology. For example, the

and export. The socialist state obviously kept control over the systemic regulation of employment but failed to control the local cross-border trade and movement of goods. While travelling, the people were able to see and estimate the scale of the existing imbalances in the supply of goods. Through purchases people were complementing the deficiencies in the domestic market, but in so doing they were also introducing the new goods onto the market. The state did not have any control over the distribution and price of these goods. Since in the planned economy

was clear that 150 Dieter Plehwe market capitalism was preferable to alternative perspectives of mixed or planned economies. But the statement of aims of the Mont Pèlerin Society embraced social minimum standards “not inimical to initiative and the functioning of the market”, and aimed at redefining “the functions of the State so as to distinguish more clearly between the totalitarian and the liberal order” (Hartwell, 1995: 41-42), making clear that the State should be in support of freedom (of contract), property rights and individualism. Democracy, on the

late eighties with the collapse of the former federal state, the transformation process from the once centrally planned economy to a free market economy and from the socialist 3 The term “Bilbao decade” is linked to the “Bilbao effect”, which refers to an iconic building be- coming the catalyst for reviving a distressed area, as occurred with the Guggenheim Museum in the Spanish city of Bilbao. The museum, which became iconic and helped the city achieve a successful economic and cultural revival, was designed by the “star architect” Frank Geary. Architecture and its

.7.1). Ein fundamentaler Unterschied bestand laut Roesler darin, dass die Menschen im Westen über die Ausrichtung abstimmen konn- ten – im Osten aber nicht.52 In der gesamten Epoche des »Golden Age« dominierten staatlicheWirtschaftspolitik und »Planung«.53 Daniel Speich Chassé resümiert über die historische Rückprojektion: »The fundamental antagonism of the Cold War has largely been remembered as an assumed opposition between centrally planned economies of the Soviet style and the open market societies of the West. But if we look at the importance of economic plan- ning on

why are Germans different than everybody else? Ide as The German economic policy debate cannot be understood without analys- ing the historically conditioned dogma upon which it is founded: Ordoliber- alism. Its inception goes back to a group of economists led by Walter Eucken, Alexander Rüstow and Franz Böhm, who sought an answer to the undeniable phenomenon of crises in the capitalist mode of production in the 1930s. They found one in a sort of “third alternative” between a planned economy of the Soviet type and radical liberalism. In the view of ordoliberals