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45 WHITHER CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY?1 GUSTAV JAHODA “Now, of all the terms of comparison we can choose, there is none more fas- cinating, more fruitful in useful trains of thought than that offered by savage peoples. Here we can first remove the variations pertaining to climate, the organism, and the habits of physical life, and we shall notice that among na- tions much less developed by the effect of moral institutions, these natural variations are bound to emerge much more prominently: being less distin- guished by secondary circumstances, they

Physiology versus Psychology The Priest and the Biopolitics of Ressentiment Sjoerd van Tuinen Looking back on the Genealogy of Morals in Ecco Homo, Friedrich Nietzsche claims that his book contained »the first psychology of the priest«.1 This should be understood in a dual sense as both the typology of the priest and the priestly nature of psychology. First, the priest wages a war against aristocracy, not through direct physical engagement but through psychological contagion and seduction.2 As Sigmund Freud allegedly said whilst travelling to America

Trauma, Attachment and Neuroaffective Developmental Psychology SUSAN HART The human brain needs stimulation for growth. At a seminar in 1998, Daniel Stern (1998c) pointed out that just as food is necessary for the body to grow, mental stimulation is needed to supply the brain with the raw materials needed for the perceptual, cognitive and sensorimotor processes to mature. Different brain regions need different stimulation, because the cognitive, emotional and motor structures in the brain mature in different ways. Basically, emotional de- velopment

21 FROM COGNITION TO CULTURE: CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM AS POST-COGNITIVIST MOVEMENTS IN PSYCHOLOGY BARBARA ZIELKE The Cognitive Revolution and the Concept of Meaning In a certain sense, cognitivism has rendered psychology meaningful again: the insight that people’s lives, the world around them, and their selves are shaped and strongly influenced, if not completely determined by their cognitive interpretation made it desirable for psychologists to in- vestigate what people know and feel about what they do. As it is

Psychology’s Multiple Concerns About Research on the Effects of Media Violence ESTRID SØRENSEN, MALTE ELSON & TOBIAS ROTHMUND In the conversation that follows, Estrid Sørensen talks with Malte Elson and To- bias Rothmund, who co-authored the statement on media violence and aggression printed in the previous chapter. It describes the background for the publication of the statement as well as the disputes involved in its production and which followed its publication. It shows that it is anything but straightforward to assess and com- municate what

215 HISTORICALLY STRUCTURED SAMPLING (HSS): HOW CAN PSYCHOLOGY’S METHODOLOGY BECOME TUNED IN TO THE REALITY OF THE HISTORICAL NATURE OF CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY? JAAN VALSINER & TATSUYA SATO Whom do we Study? The Question of Sampl ing A major problem that blocks research in cultural psychology from devel- oping new methodology is the issue of sampling. This block is due to the social norm widely accepted by psychologists that sampling should be ‘random’ and ‘representative’—both of these labels cover up reality that is necessarily very different

11 PSYCHOLOGY, CULTURE, AND THE PURSUIT OF MEANING: AN INTRODUCTION JÜRGEN STRAUB & DORIS WEIDEMANN Culture and Psychology Contemporary psychology offers countless theoretical and methodologi- cal studies in which the concept of culture is central. This could be seen as the belated confirmation of an insight Stuart Chase had more than half a century ago, when he wrote that the cultural concept of anthropology and sociology “is coming to be regarded as the foundation stone of the social sciences” (Chase 1948: 59). Alfred Kroeber and Clyde

83 UNDERSTANDING AS RELATIONSHIP: CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY IN GLOBAL CONTEXT KENNETH J. GERGEN Consciousness of difference—political, moral, ideological, ethnic—is ever present and ever expanding. This focus can be intense, as matters of life and death depend on how we confront such differences. In this con- text there is broad demand for a culturally sensitive and engaged psy- chology. The result has been a dramatic expansion in the number of scholars engaged in such pursuits, along with the range of theories and orientations contributing

2. America’s Got Talent: Race Psychology in der Zwischenkriegszeit Die boasianische Intelligenzforschung reagierte unmittelbar auf die psychometri- sche Bewegung, die in den USA zwischen 1910 und 1940 eine einzigartige Re- sonanz erzeugte. In keinem anderen Land widmeten sich Wissenschaftler und ihre Adepten in anderen gesellschaftlichen Institutionen in vergleichbarer Weise der mathematischen Objektivierung von psychischen Unterschieden, die sie nicht zuletzt auf ethnische und rassische Gruppen bezogen. Die Vereinigten Staaten konnten daher als