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Towards a Reconciliation of Freedom and Ecology
Eine Ethnographie der waterscape von Gilgit, Pakistan. Ressourcen - Gemeinschaften - Überwachung
Series: Design, 38
Praktiken und Methoden
Series: Science Studies
Muster gemeinsamen Handelns
Series: Sozialtheorie
Series: Sozialtheorie
Series: Sozialtheorie

-profit institutions to produce public goods. (Ownership does affect the potential for public or private goods though. Distinctions between state, private non-profit, and private for-profit, institutions are other and useful distinctions to make). • Public and private do not constitute a unitary set, either by the ab- sorption of one into the other, or by combining the two. Public and private goods are too different, too heterogeneous, to enable a neat mathematical reconciliation. Higher education has plural affiliations (Sen 1999) and diverse effects. It is not ‘one thing

exclusively concerned with two sources of market failure: public goods and external social benefits of consumption, known as “externalities”, that provide the basis of the eco- nomic case for state subsidy. These externalities are explained in detail below. The existence of public goods characteristics and external bene- fits in the arts and culture is not disputed — just their extent. The diffi- culty is that it is not easy to put a value on them, precisely because price is not a sufficient guide. As in other areas of economics, there is a spec- trum of opinion as to

- volvement of the state in the economy, not just in the role of regulator but also provider of economic goods and services that are most efficiently and effectively provided by the state rather than the private economy. The state purchased and regulated agricultural crops, electricity, radios, medicines, microchips, comput- ers and the internet while education, and in most industrialized nations health care, became universal public goods provided directly by the state. In second modernity, by contrast, public goods are increasingly provided by private entities either