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2 Transnational Social Movements as agents of change in World Politics Having established the normative ground of demands for human rights accountability among MDBs, I now turn to transnational social movements (for an elaboration, see Chapter 3) as the agents who can bring such change about. In fact, the question which movement tactics are capable of socializing MDBs into human rights accountability is at the core of the current work. As stated in the introduction, I understand socializa- tion as a “process of learning to behave in a way that is acceptable to


Trends in Global Governance ............... 45 2 Transnational Social Movements as agents of change in World Politics ................. 49 2.1 Transnational Social Movements – A Definition........................................................... 50 2.2 The Transnationalization of Social Movement Activity.................................................. 53 2.3 Social Movement Tactics ....................................................................................... 55 2.4 Socialization and the Outcomes of Social Movements


, which standards MDBs should meet to be considered legitimate, whereby legitimacy is understood as a normative concept referring to “the right to rule” of a given political order or institution. In parallel to the growing competencies of MDBs, so- cial movements increasingly joined forces beyond national boundaries to demand that MDBs adhere to human rights, that they govern in a transparent way and that they can be effectively sanctioned in case they violate human rights. In short, transnational social movements (TSM) demanded human rights accountability from MDBs


).When movements matter: The Townsend plan and the rise of social security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Amenta, E., Caren, N., Chiarello, E., & Su, Y. (2010).The political consequences of social movements. Annual Review of Sociology, 36(1), 287–307. Amenta, E., Carruthers, B. G., & Zylan, Y. (1992). A hero for the aged? The Townsend movement, the political mediation model, and U.S. old-age policy, 1934-1950. Amer- ican Journal of Sociology, 98(2), 308–339. Amnesty International (2016, March 3). Submission to the World Bank on the sec- ond draft of the


procedures (Tallberg et al., 2013), deliberation (Dryzek, 2006; Steffek, 2018), transparency (Grigorescu, 2010), accountability (Scholte, 2011) and compliance with human rights norms (Buchanan & Keohane, 2006). Even before the academic debate on the legitimacy ofMDBs gainedmomentum, so- cialmovements from countries around theworld joined forces to demand the adherence of very similar standards since the late 1980s. Such “transnational social movements” (TSM) can be defined as “collectivities with constituents in at least two states, composed of organized and non

3 Analytical Framework To recap, the research question of this work is: How and under which conditions are transnational social movements successful in strengthening the human rights account- ability of multilateral development banks? This question is analogous to and builds on existing works on socialization with a focus on causal mechanisms (Schimmelfennig, 2005; Zürn & Checkel, 2005). According to Zürn and Checkel (2005), “A common mo- tive for invoking ‘mechanisms’ is to clarify what happens between a cause and its ef- fect, that is, to analyze in detail how


against human rights violations, TSMs en- gaged in different strategies toward MDBs with the aim to socialize MDBs into human rights accountability. From existing IR and social movement literature on the engage- ment of transnational civil society (either as TSM or TAN), I derived a causal mecha- nism of MDB socialization. According to this causal mechanism, transnational social movements should combine a sequence of disruptive tactics toward the MDB with con- ventional tactics toward important MDB member states. I reconstructed this causal mechanism between two cases

impulse who take contemporary trends in global governance seriously. While human rights express the equal moral standing of human beings in virtue of an equal respect for their basic needs, accountability expresses “a belief that persons with public responsibilities should be answerable to ‘the people’ for the performance of their duties” (Dowdle, 2006, p. 3). With this in mind, I now turn to transnational social movements and their advocacy for precisely this human rights accountability of MDBs “on the ground”.

examination of an aspect of a historical episode to develop or test historical explanations that may be generalizable to other events.” (p.17). Following this definition of a case study, the re- searchers interest does not lie with an historical episode as a whole (e.g. anMDB reform process), but with specific aspects of that episode. I am interested in a specific causal mechanism involving mixed TSM tactics. Given this research interest, my universe of cases consists of all instances where transnational social movements tried mixed tac- tics to demand political and

Bank for Reconstruction and De- velopment (IBRD). There was consensus among D.C.-based NGOs that the influence of the U.S. Congress was bigger toward IDA than with regard to the IBRD (L. Udall, personal communication, October 2015). On October 7, 1989, the New York Times published an article on the ongoing crit- icism. As a source of evidence on the strategy of social movements, the article by The New York Times provides an important piece of additional information, as compared to the interview accounts used so far, the uniqueness of the information is rather high