other attempt has been
made to apply the concept of social milieus especially to the population with a Turkish
migration background. It originates from the Center for Turkish Studies. But, the au-
thors conclude that their approach is particularly inappropriate for this singular ethnic
group (HALM/SAUER 2011).
AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIGRATORY SOCIETY 59
• People with diverse national or ethnic backgrounds can be clas-
sified in a model based on ‘socialstatus’ and ‘basic values’. ‘So-
cial status’ (‘low’, ‘middle’, ‘high’) corresponds to social classes
paper argues that because of social desirability bias (SD bias), individu-
SOCIAL DESIRABILITY’S INFLUENCE ON AUDIENCE RESEARCH 15
als may provide feedback that is more positive than their actual opinion.
It is assumed that the cultural sector is particularly vulnerable to SD bias
because of an anticipated high trait desirability (TD) associated with the
fine and performing arts, which are often associated with ‘high culture.’
High culture has long played an important role in marking socialstatus and prestige (VEBLEN 1899; LINTON 1945; BOURDIEU 1979
be associated with “a passive and acquiescent body” and seen to be a “withdrawal
from the world” (Bissell 2007: 278). “It is somehow ‘better’, culturally, economi-
cally, or politically, to be mobile than immobile” (ibid: 280). However, mobility is
also contingent on the economic and socialstatus of travellers, where concepts
such as speedy boarding, priority boarding or fast lane access come at a premium
and those who can afford these premiums rarely have to wait. This accelerated
mobility is often at the expense of other travellers who have to
, including online videos.
Patient Advocacies and New Modes of Resistances
Historically, U.S. patient advocacies have called attention to their communities’
socialstatus as patients to navigate the “challenges of crafting complex political-
economic relationships with the state and market” (Heath/Rapp/Taussig 2008:
160). These negotiations have generated new forms of “citizenship claims”
(Ibid.), including those organized around genetic conditions, such as diabetes.
The HIV/AIDS advocacy in the early days of the epidemic now exemplifies how
patients can transition
escape poverty and to amass consider-
able wealth, he does not manage to achieve respectable socialstatus. Moreover,
he later employs illegal means to attain wealth and power such as bootlegging.
The novel thus not only criticises the American Dream but also the belief that
one can remake one’s self through discipline and self-monitoring, because the
context must also be taken into account. Nevertheless, Fitzgerald’s novel ends
on a more optimistic note, and its beautiful final image reinforces the idea of
America as the land of hope and opportunity.