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Herausforderung und Rezeption
Neue Perspektiven in Philosophie und Kulturwissenschaft
Das paradoxe Drehmoment in der Frage nach dem guten Leben
Wider das Lob der Anpassungsfähigkeit
Subjektivierungen von Deutsch-Marokkanern zwischen Diskurs und Disposition

«. In: Ders., Schriften I, Olten: Walter, S. 61– 70. Lacan, Jacques (1978): Die vier Grundbegriffe der Psychoana- lyse, Olten: Walter. Laclau, Ernesto (1981): Politik und Ideologie im Marxismus, Berlin: Argument. Laclau, Ernesto (1983): »Transformations of Advanced In- dustrial Societies and the Theory of the Subject«. In: Saka- ri Hänninen / Leena Paldan (Hg.), Rethinking Ideology: A Marxist Debate, Berlin: Argument, S. 39–44. Laclau, Ernesto (1990): New Reflections on the Revolution of our Time, London: Verso. Laclau, Ernesto (1996): Emancipation(s), London: Verso

perceptual attentions. In Chapter 2, I turn at last to psychoanalysis and begin to explore Lacan’s theory of the subject. The key insight of psychoanalysis, I sug- gest, lies in understanding the conf licts that assail social orders as be- ing anchored in a fundamental division within subjectivity that both incites its desire but also thwarts it. Human subjects are, consequently, inclined to identify with ‘plausible stories’ that protect them from this otherwise painful condition of division. Lacan’s contribution to psy- choanalytical theory, I explain, emerges from

remain silent” (Lacan 2001: 453). “Science without consciousness” translates directly into “science without the subject of cognition”, without Kantian subjectivity, de-subjectivised science, but also into “science without the soul”, without Aristotelian subjectivity, de- psychologised science. From this one should not conclude that mathematics eliminates or rejects all subjectivity, for Lacan continues: “the gay science joyfully presumed the ruin of the soul. Of course, neurosis survived” (ibid). On the ruins of the premodern theory of the subject, modernity

claim or reclaim some notion of identi- ty, subjectivity and agency; sometimes to eschew it in the name of undecidability or jouissance. But always in relation to a sacrosanct conception of a male identity which women can either accept, adapt to, or refuse altogether. Only Irigaray – and even then, only in some of her works – begins to suggest that there really is no point in pursuing the masculine dream of self-control, self-identification, self-knowledge and self-de- termination. If ›any theory of the subject will always have been appropriated by the masculine

character of the other determines in no small part the self. (Ibid.: 115) Regarding theories of the subject, it is often important to highlight this inf luence against ideas of innate characteristics or the demand to become as self-ref lexive as possible. Then it suffices that “the situation” of the subject is important—but not so much what that situation actually is. Alcoff highlights that the practices we become habituated in are structured by all kinds of social difference. She mainly analyses race and gender, but points at social strata, education and financial