Impedance spectroscopy is a highly performant measurement method, which is often used in many fields of science and technology. It refers to the measurement of the complex impedance over a range of frequencies and provides possibilities for separating relaxation effects, accurate measurements and measurements of non-accessible quantities. In material science, impedance spectroscopy allows the characterization of the complex conductivity. Impedance spectra of battery cells allow to get information in a non-destructive way and to separate different phenomena concerning electrolyte and electrodes.In the biomedical field, it has the decisive advantage by providing a lot of information non-invasively and for long time intervals. For sensors, decisive improvements of measurement accuracy can be reached and multifunctional sensors can be realized, which allow measurements of more than one measurement quantity at the same time and same state of a material or a device. In this contribution, after an introduction about the fundamentals of the measurement method, the links and differences between a wide range of application areas of impedance spectroscopy are shown for the first time. In each of these fields, we highlight the specific strengths of impedance spectroscopy and report on recent advances and future trends.
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