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Stem Cells – From Hype to Real Hope

Ed. by Haider, Khawaja Husnain / Aziz, MD, Salim

eBook (PDF)
Publication Date:
December 2018
Copyright year:
2019
ISBN
978-3-11-058704-3
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9. Role of stem cells on evolution: a hypothesis

Howard, Newton / Hamlat, Abderrahmane / Dubourg, Julie / Messerer, Mahmoud / Pasqualini, Eduardo

Abstract

Life evolution is a fascinating theme. According to Lamarck, “creation” is in a constant state of advancement, a result of cumulative changes of unclear etiology, although the potential role of stem cells has not been analyzed. Hierarchical and somatotopic development suggests that the whole organism’s cells are linked through complex hierarchical clustering network systems that provide several advantages to the organism cells, including cell feedback controls, which allow somatic cells to promote and/or repress gene behaviors of anybody’s cell, including germ stem cells (GSCs). Gene flexibility for accepting duplicated genetic elements is mandatory for evolution; thus, the updated selected epigenetic information of SC is transmitted to GSCs and consequent generations. However, we should consider the competition between the two parental chromosomes. This dual parental occurrence of an epigenetic modification could create an “optimum selective peak”; therefore, life “sexualization” was the first primordial step of evolution. The second primordial step was brain emergence, which was initiated by the development of motor, sensing, and sensorial functions. This has contributed, by successive cascades, to brain evolution across species. In mammals and primates, comport functions are imprinted as “fixed brain engrams” because genes have been fixed at the level of genomic organization, whereas in humans, the brain genome has escaped “fixation.” Consequently, the plasticity of brain gene regulatory mechanisms has reduced the genetically predetermined gene expression of “brain engrams,” leading to the development of complex brain regions and brain functional diversification, with their complex interaction.

Citation Information

Newton Howard, Abderrahmane Hamlat, Julie Dubourg, Mahmoud Messerer, Eduardo Pasqualini (2018). 9. Role of stem cells on evolution: a hypothesis. In , (Eds.), Stem Cells – From Hype to Real Hope (pp. 173–187). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110587043-009

Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110587043

Online ISBN: 9783110587043

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Munich/BostonGet Permission

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