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Enhanced Electronic Grammars Online

An advanced research tool for linguists


One-time purchase of base content (RRP), subsequently annual update fee for new content.

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    • A sophisticated Online Reference Work specially designed for the needs of general linguists and typologists
    • Enables simultaneous search across dozens of languages on hundreds of linguistic phenomena
    • Makes complex multiple searches possible
    • Each linguistic phenomenon is illustrated by naturalistic examples with interlinear glossing and free translations
    • Focus on small and endangered languages stimulates new insights on human language
    • Non-restrictive DRM – allows for an unlimited number of simultaneous users campus / institution-wide

    Aims and Scope

    Enhanced Electronic Grammars (EEG) features comprehensive descriptions of languages from around the world. Through this unique Online Reference Work, full grammars are made available together in an interlinked and semantically-annotated format, allowing granular access to the grammatical data and enabling cross-language research of several grammars at the same time. In addition to cross-linguistic queries, each grammar can also be read and researched individually.

    Enhanced Electronic Grammars is updated biannually, integrating several new grammar publications each year for even more extensive cross-linguistic research.

    The following languages are currently available in EEG:

    Aguaruna (Iiniá Chicham), Alto Perené, Bangime, Bardi, Basque, Berbice Dutch, Bunan, Cavineña, Daakaka, Domari, Emai, Eton, Goemai, Hinuq, Hup, Jamsay, Kakataibo, Khatso, Kolyma Yukaghir, Kulina, Kuuk Thaayorre, Kwaza, Lao, Lavukaleve, Madurese, Mani, Mapuche, Mian, Mina, Mongsen Ao, Neverver, Qaqet, Qiang, Saramaccan Creole, Savosavo, Sierra Popoluca, Siraya, Teiwa, Tommo So, Toqabaqita, Tundra Nenets, Vaeakau-Taumako.

    Supplementary Information



    Grammars of endangered and little described languages are the life-blood of linguistics!

    It has become clear to linguists of all persuasions over recent decades that work on Language as a general human faculty needs to pay attention to cross-linguistic differences, so that we can built up approaches to grammar that are capable of handling this range of diversity, and in turn use the results of this grammatical research in other subdomains of linguistics, including those with more psychological, social, or pedagogical emphases.

    The Enhanced Electronic Grammars database for the first time allows linguists to gather data from the best available grammatical descriptions of a wide range of the world's languages, including data that is challenging for approaches based on only more widely spoken languages. For instance, linguists working on reciprocal  ("each other") constructions have hypothesized that while languages may allow constructions of the type 'Romeo and Juliet love each other', they will not allow constructions of the type 'each other love Romeo and Juliet'. Yet precisely this construction is found in Hinuq, spoken in the North Caucasus and described in Diana Forker's grammar published in the Mouton Grammar Library, which forms part of the input to the Enhanced Electronic Grammars series.

    Bernard Comrie, Director, Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

    Comments (1)

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    • In the first paragraph there is a typo: "...so that we can built..." This comment can be delete after fixing the typo.

      posted by: James Hafford on 2018-02-08 12:01 PM (Europe/Berlin)