Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
In This Section

Acta Geophysica

6 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.968
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.270

Cite Score 2016: 1.06

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.581
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.779

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
In This Section
Volume 56, Issue 3 (Sep 2008)


On the significance of form-induced stress in rough wall turbulent boundary layers

Costantino Manes
  • Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research, SLF, Davos, Switzerland
  • School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
  • Email:
/ Dubravka Pokrajac
  • School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
  • Email:
/ Omduth Coceal
  • Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK
  • Email:
/ Ian McEwan
  • School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
  • Email:
Published Online: 2008-07-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11600-008-0021-2


This paper presents a review of recent experimental and numerical studies which deal with the analysis of form-induced stress in rough wall turbulent boundary layers. The aim of the paper is to assess the importance of this stress for various rough wall geometries and flow conditions. Analysis of the significance of form-induced stress is first performed by comparing its magnitude with the magnitude of Reynolds stress for each data set available in literature. Then, by selecting a special set of data, we analyze the comparison between the gradients of both stresses. We point out that the comparison of stress gradients gives a different perspective on the role of form-induced stress in rough wall boundary layers.

Keywords: form-induced stress; rough wall boundary layers; Reynolds stress

  • [1] Aberle, J. (2006), Spatially averaged near-bed flow field over rough armor layers. In: A.H. Cardoso and R. Ferreira (eds.), Proc. Intern. Conf. on Fluvial Hydraulics, River Flow 2006, Balkema, Brookfield, VT.

  • [2] Bohm, M., J.J Finnigan, and M.R. Raupach (2000), Dispersive fluxes and canopy flows: Just how important are they? 24th Conf. on Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 14–18 August 2000, University of California, Davis, CA, 106–107.

  • [3] Campbell, L.J., I.K. McEwan, V.I. Nikora, D. Pokrajac, M. Gallagher, and C. Manes (2005), Bed load effects on hydrodynamics of rough bed open channel flows, J. Hydraul. Eng. ASCE 131, 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2005)131:7(576) [Crossref]

  • [4] Coceal, O., T.G. Thomas, I.P. Castro, and S.E. Belcher (2006), Mean flow and turbulence statistics over groups of urban-like cubical obstacles, Bound.-Layer Meteor. 121, 491–519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10546-006-9076-2 [Crossref]

  • [5] Coceal, O., T.G. Thomas, and S.E. Belcher (2008), Spatially-averaged flow statistics within a canopy of large bluff bodies: Results from direct numerical simulations, Acta Geophys. 56, 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11600-008-0025-y [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • [6] Gimenez-Curto, L.A., and M.A. Corniero Lera (1996), Oscillating turbulent flow over very rough surfaces, J. Geophys. Res. 101, C9, 20,745–20,758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/96JC01824 [Crossref]

  • [7] Kaimal, J.C., and J.J. Finnigan (1994), Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows: Their Structure and Measurement, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 289 pp.

  • [8] Klevicki, J., P. Fife, T. Wei, and P. McMurtry (2007), A physical model of the turbulent boundary layer consonant with mean momentum balance structure, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 365, 823–839, DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2006.1944. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2006.1944 [Crossref]

  • [9] Maddux, T.B., S.R. McLean, and J.M. Nelson (2003), Turbulent flow over threedimensional dunes: 2. Fluid and bed stresses, J. Geophys. Res. 108, F1, 6010, DOI: 10.1029/2003JF000018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003JF000018 [Crossref]

  • [10] Manes, C., D. Pokrajac, and I.K. McEwan (2007), Double averaged open channel flows with small relative submergence, J. Hydraul. Eng. ASCE 133, 896–904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2007)133:8(896) [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • [11] McLean, S.R. and V.I. Nikora (2006), Characteristics of turbulent unidirectional flow over rough beds: Double-averaging perspective with particular focus on sand dunes and gravel beds, Water Resour. Res. 42, W10409, DOI: 10.1029/2005WR004708. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005WR004708 [Crossref]

  • [12] McLean, S.R., J.M. Nelson and S.R. Wolfe (1994), Turbulence structure over two dimensional bed forms: Implications for sediment transport, J. Geophys. Res. 99, C6, 12,729–12,747. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/94JC00571 [Crossref]

  • [13] Nikora, V., D.G. Goring, I.K. McEwan, and G. Griffiths (2001), Spatially averaged open-channel flow over a rough bed, J. Hydraul. Eng. ASCE 127, 123–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2001)127:2(123) [Crossref]

  • [14] Nikora, V., I.K. McEwan, S.R. McLean, S. Coleman, D. Pokrajac, and R. Walters (2007), Double-averaging concept for rough-bed open-channel and overland flows: Theoretical background, J. Hydraul. Eng. 133, 8, 873–883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2007)133:8(873) [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • [15] Pokrajac, D., and C. Manes (2008), Interface between turbulent flows above and within rough porous walls, Acta Geophys. 56, 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11600-008-0022-1 [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • [16] Pokrajac, D., L.J. Campbell, V.I. Nikora, C. Manes, and I.K. McEwan (2007), Quadrant analysis of persistent spatial velocity perturbations over squarebar roughness, Experiments in Fluids 42, 3, 413–423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00348-006-0248-0 [Crossref]

  • [17] Poggi, D., G.G. Katul, and J.D. Albertson (2004a), A note on the contribution of dispersive fluxes to momentum transfer within canopies, Bound.-Layer Meteor. 111, 615–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:BOUN.0000016563.76874.47 [Crossref]

  • [18] Poggi, D., A. Porporato, L. Ridolfi, J.D. Albertson, and G.G. Katul (2004b), The effect of vegetation density on canopy sub-layer turbulence, Bound.-Layer Meteor. 111, 565–587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:BOUN.0000016576.05621.73 [Crossref]

  • [19] Raupach, M.R. (1994), Simplified expressions for vegetation roughness length and zero-plane displacement as functions of canopy height and area index, Bound.-Layer Meteor. 71, 211–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00709229 [Crossref]

  • [20] Raupach, M.R., and A.S. Thom (1981), Turbulence in and above plant canopies, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 13, 97–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.13.010181.000525 [Crossref]

  • [21] Taylor, P.A. (1988), Turbulent wakes in the atmospheric boundary layer. In: W.L. Steffen and O.T. Denmead (eds.), Flow and Transport in the Natural Environment: Advances and Applications, Springer-Verlag, New York, 270–292.

  • [22] Wei, T., P. Fife, J. Klevicki, and P. McMurtry (2005), Properties of the mean momentum balance in turbulent boundary layers, J. Fluid Mech. 522, 303–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112004001958 [Crossref]

  • [23] Wilson, N.R., and R. Shaw (1977), A higher order closure model for canopy flow, J. Appl. Meteor. 16, 1198–1205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1977)016<1197:AHOCMF>2.0.CO;2 [Crossref]

About the article

Published Online: 2008-07-01

Published in Print: 2008-09-01

Citation Information: Acta Geophysica, ISSN (Online) 1895-7455, ISSN (Print) 1895-6572, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11600-008-0021-2. Export Citation

© 2008 Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Sharon Moltchanov and Uri Shavit
Water Resources Research, 2013, Volume 49, Number 12, Page 8222
Dario Maggiolo, Costantino Manes, and Andrea Marion
Physics of Fluids, 2013, Volume 25, Number 9, Page 093603
Ponnambalam Rameshwaran, Pamela S Naden, and Mark Lawless
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 2011, Volume 36, Number 10, Page 1350
Sharon Moltchanov, Yardena Bohbot-Raviv, and Uri Shavit
Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2011, Volume 139, Number 2, Page 333
Costantino Manes, Dubravka Pokrajac, Ian McEwan, and Vladimir Nikora
Physics of Fluids, 2009, Volume 21, Number 12, Page 125109

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in