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Acta Medica Martiniana

The Journal of Comenius University in Bratislava

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1335-8421
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Surfactant and its Role in the Upper Respiratory System and Eustachian Tube

B. Uhliarova
  • Department of Physiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Martin
  • Department of Otorhinolaryngology, FD Roosevelt Faculty Hospital, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ M. Svec / A. Calkovska
Published Online: 2012-09-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10201-011-0028-2

Surfactant and its Role in the Upper Respiratory System and Eustachian Tube

Surfactant research was originally directed toward lung mechanics, however, with growing information on the biology of the surfactant system it has expanded beyond the borders of basic physiology. The research has become interdisciplinary, not only considering aspects of lungs biology relevant for breathing, but also those aspects relevant for airway defence.

Surfactant consists mainly of phospholipids that lower the alveolar surface tension to prevent lung collapse at expiration. They also support mechanical elimination of inhaled pathogens by reducing the viscosity of airway mucus. Approximately 8-10% of surfactant is made up of proteins. Among them, specific proteins SP-A and SP-D play a crucial role in the innate defence system. They belong to collectins family and serve as the first step in immune response to inhaled pathogens. In limited extent, SP-B and SP-C are also involved in immunomodulation.

Although numerous studies have focused on the physiological function of surfactant in the lower airways, relatively little is known about its role in the upper respiratory system. Identification of lamellar bodies in ciliated epithelium of the upper airways indicates that surfactant may have a role in normal sinonasal function and pathology. Decreased levels of the main component of surfactant, phospholipids, have been implicated in atrophic rhinitis and altered levels of surfactant proteins have been observed in a number of respiratory tract diseases. The pattern of inflammation in the upper respiratory tract generally appears to parallel that in the lower airways and nowadays upper respiratory disease and lower airway disease are considered as two manifestations of one pathological process. Therefore, surfactant proteins may play a significant role in the upper respiratory tract diseases.

In addition, surfactant has been identified in the Eustachian tube where it helps to lower the opening pressure between nasopharynx and middle ear. The alterations in surfactant levels may adversely affect Eustachian tube function and contribute to chronic ear infection.

The review summarizes the current knowledge on the presence and the role of surfactant in the upper respiratory system and Eustachian tube.

Keywords: surfactant; specific proteins; upper airways; otitis media; Eustachian tube

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About the article


Published Online: 2012-09-11

Published in Print: 2012-03-01


Citation Information: Acta Medica Martiniana, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 12–21, ISSN (Print) 1335-8421, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10201-011-0028-2.

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  • I am surprised that you do not reference our rather seminal papers on exogenous, synthetic surfactant and the ET and OM (with no surfactant proteins at all). Also surprised that your reviewers did not catch the omission. They are: 1. Otitis media: treatment with intranasal aerosolized surfactant. Chandrasekhar SS, Mautone AJ. Laryngoscope. 2004 Mar;114(3):472-85. PMID: 15091221 2. Intranasal metered dose aerosolized surfactant reduces passive opening pressure of the eustachian tube: comparison study in two animal models. Chandrasekhar SS, Connelly PE, Venkatayan N, el-Sherif Ammar M, Tabor M, Mautone AJ. Otol Neurotol. 2002 Jan;23(1):3-7. PMID: 11773836 3. Dosage regimens of intranasal aerosolized surfactant on otitis media with effusion in an animal model. Venkatayan N, Connelly PE, Mautone AJ, Troublefield YL, Chandrasekhar SS. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001 Apr;124(4):388-93. PMID: 11283495 4. Intranasal surfactant aerosol therapy for otitis media with effusion. Venkatayan N, Troublefield YL, Connelly PE, Mautone AJ, Chandrasekhar SS. Laryngoscope. 2000 Nov;110(11):1857-60. PMID: 11081599

    posted by: Sujana Chandrasekhar on 2014-08-28 05:23 AM (America/New_York)