Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Palaeobotanica

The Journal of W. Szafer Institute of Botany of Polish Academy of Sciences

2 Issues per year


CiteScore 2016: 1.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.524
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.513

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2082-0259
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Morphology, affinities and phytogeographic history of Porosia Hickey in the Cretaceous and Paleocene of North America and Asia

Steven R. Manchester / Tatyana M. Kodrul
Published Online: 2014-06-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/acpa-2014-0002

ABSTRACT

Morphology and anatomy of the extinct angiosperm fruit, Porosia verrucosa (Lesqueruex) Hickey, are documented in detail based on various modes of preservation including molds, casts, and permineralizations from more than seventy localities in the late Cretaceous and Paleocene. The fruits are schizocarpic with paired unilocular, single-seeded mericarps seated on a prominent gynophore with an hypogynous perianth borne on a long pedicel. The most distinctive feature of these fruits is the regularly spaced cylindrical intrusions over the surface of the endocarp. These are interpreted to represent oil cavities similar to those common in the fruits of extant Rutaceae. The oldest known occurrences of P. verrucosa are from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian) of western North America, but the genus traversed Beringia and became widespread in the Paleocene both in Asia (Kazakhstan, Amur Region, and Koryak Highlands), and North America (Montana, North Dakota, Wyoming, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, Alberta, Saskatchewan). It extended to the late Paleocene in the Rocky Mountain and Great Plains region, and appears to have become extinct near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.

KEYWORDS: Fossil fruits; Rutaceae; Campanian; Maastrichtian; Paleocene

References

  • AKHMETIEV M.A., KEZINA T.V, KODRUL T.M. & MANCHESTER S.R. 2002. Stratigrafiya i flora pogranichnikh sloev mela i paleogena yugo-vostochnoy chasti Zeysko-Bureinskogo osadochnogo basseyna (Stratigraphy and flora of the Cretaceous- Paleogene boundary layers in the southeast part of the Zeya-Bureya sedimentary basin): 275-315. In: Akhmetiev M., Doludenko M., Herman A. & Ignatiev I. (eds), Sbornik pamyati chlena-korrespondenta AN SSSR, professora Vsevoloda Andreevicha Vakhrameeva (k 90-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya). GEOS, Moskva (in Russian).Google Scholar

  • AKHMETIEV M. & SHEVYREVA N. 1989. Flora tsagayanskogo tipa v Prizaysan’ye, Vostochniy Kazakhstan (Flora of Tsagajan type in Prizaissan, Eastern Kazakhstan). Izvestiya AN SSSR, Ser. geol., 6: 79-89 (in Russian).Google Scholar

  • AULENBACK K. 2009. Identification guide to the fossil plants of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Drumheller, Alberta. University of Calgary Press, Calgary.Google Scholar

  • AULENBACK K. & BRAMAN D. 1991. A chemical extraction technique for the recovery of silicified plant remains from ironstones. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 70: 3-8.Google Scholar

  • BREITHAUPT B. 1982. Paleontology and paleoecology of the Lance Formation (Maastrichtian), east flank of the Rock Springs uplift, Sweetwater County, Wyoming. Univ. Wyom. Contrib. Geol., 21: 123-151.Google Scholar

  • BROWN R.W. 1962. Paleocene floras of the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. U.S. Geol. Surv. Profes. Paper, 375: 1-119.Google Scholar

  • BRÜCKNER C. 1991. Fruchtanatomische Studien an Dictamnus albus L., Zanthoxylum simulens Hance, Ptelea trifoliata L. und Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae). Feddes Repertorium, 102(7-8): 541-570.Google Scholar

  • BUGDAEVA E.V., MARKEVICH V.S., SOROKIN A.P. & BOLOTSKY Y.L. 2001. Glava 2. Stratigrafiya (Chapter 2. Stratigraphy): 25-43. In: Bugdaeva E.V. (ed.), Flora i dinozavry na granitse mela i paleogena Zeysko-Bureinskogo basseyna. Dalnauka, Vladivostok (in Russian).Google Scholar

  • CARIS P., SMETS E., DE COSTER K. & DE CRAENE L.P. 2006. Floral ontogeny of Cneorum tricoccon L.(Rutaceae). Plant Syst. and Evol., 257(3-4): 223-232.Google Scholar

  • CHASE M.W., MORTON C.M. & KALLUNKI J.A. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Rutaceae: a cladistic analysis of the subfamilies using evidence from rbcl and atpb sequence variation. Amer. J. Bot., 86(8): 1191-1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • CRANE P.R., MANCHESTER S.R & DILCHER D.L. 1990. A preliminary survey of fossil leaves and well-preserved reproductive structures from the Sentinel Butte Formation (Paleocene) near Almont, North Dakota. Fieldiana Geol. New. Ser., 20: 1-63.Google Scholar

  • CRANE P.R., MANCHESTER S.R. & DILCHER D.L. 1991. Reproductive and vegetative structure of Nordenskioldia (Trochodendraceae), a vesselless dicotyledon from the Early Tertiary of the Northren Hemisphere. Amer. J. Bot., 78(10): 1311-1334.Google Scholar

  • DAWSON J. 1875. Note on the plants, collected by Mr. G.M. Dawson, from the lignite Tertiary deposits, near the forty-ninth parallel. Report on the geology and resources in the vicinity of the forty-ninth parallel by G.M. Dawson. British North Am. Boundary Comm., 327-331.Google Scholar

  • DORF E. 1942. Upper Cretaceous floras of the Rocky Mountain region: II. Flora of the Lance Formation at its type locality, Niobrara County, Wyoming. Carnegie Inst. Washington Contr. Paleontol. Pub., 508: 3-159.Google Scholar

  • ENGLER A. 1931. Cneoraceae, Rutaceae: 184-359. In: Engler A. & Prantl K. (eds), Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd ed., vol. 19a, Leipzig: W.Engelmann.Google Scholar

  • ERICKSON B. 1999. Fossil Lake Wannagan (Paleocene: Tiffanian) Billings County, North. Dakota. North Dakota Geol. Surv. Misc. Ser., 87: 1-9.Google Scholar

  • EYDE R.H. 1997. Fossil Record and Ecology of Nyssa (Cornaceae). Bot. Rev., 63(2): 97-123.Google Scholar

  • GOLOVNEVA L.B. 1994a. The flora of the Maastrichtian- Danian deposits of the Koryak Upland, Northeast Russia. Cretaceous Res., 15(1): 89-100.Google Scholar

  • GOLOVNEVA L.B. 1994b. Maastrikht-datskie flory Koryakskogo nagor’ya (Maastrichtian-Danian floras of Koryak Upland). Trudy Bot. instituta im. V.L. Komarova, 13: 1-145 (in Russian).Google Scholar

  • GOLOVNEVA L.B. 2008. Vozrast i paleogeograficheskoe znachenie flory Zhuvankary i skhodnykh s ney flor Zaysanskoy vpadiny, Kazakhstan (summary: Systematic composition and palaeogeographical importance of the Palaeocene Zhuvancara flora from Zaisan Depression, Kazakhstan): 119-129. In: Budantsev L., (red.), Voprosy paleofloristiki i sistematiki iskopaemykh rasteniy. Rossiyskaya akademiya nauk, Botanicheskiy institut im. V.L. Komarova, Sankt-Peterburg (in Russian).Google Scholar

  • GOLOVNEVA L.B. & HERMAN A.B. 1992. Novye dannye o sostave i vozraste flory koryakskoy svity, Koryakskoye nagor’ye (New data on the composition and age of the flora from the Koryak Formation, Koryak Uplands). Bot. Zhurn. 77(7): 60-71 (in Russian).Google Scholar

  • GORDON I. 1985. The Paleocene Denning Spring flora of north-central Oregon. Oregon Geol., 47: 115-118.Google Scholar

  • HANTKE R. 1954. Die fossile Flora der obermiozänen Oehninger-Fundstelle Schrotzburg (Schienerberg Süd-Baden). Denkschr. Schweiz. Naturf. Ges., 80(3): 1-118.Google Scholar

  • HANCE C.J. 1912. The Glendive lignite field, Dawson County, Montana: Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv., 471-D: 271-283.Google Scholar

  • HICKEY L.J. 1977. Stratigraphy and paleobotany of the Golden Valley Formation (Early Tertiary) of western North Dakota. Geol. Soc. Amer. Mem., 150: 1-181.Google Scholar

  • HICKEY L.J. 1980. Paleocene stratigraphy and flora of the Clark’s Fork Basin. In: Gingerich P.D. (ed.), Early Cenozoic paleontology and stratigraphy of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Univ. Michigan Pap. Paleont. 24: 33-49.Google Scholar

  • JOHNSON K. 2002. Megaflora of the Hell Creek and lower Fort Union Formations in the western Dakotas: Vegetational response to climate change, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event, and rapid marine transgression. In: Hartman J, Johnson K. & Nichols D. (eds), The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the northern Great Plains: An integrated continental record of the end of the Cretaceous. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap., 361: 329-391.Google Scholar

  • KNIGHT T.G., KLIEBER A. & SEDGLEY M. 2001. The relationship between oil gland and fruit development in Washington navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). Ann. Botany, 88(6): 1039-1047.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • KRASSILOV V. 1973. Cuticular structure of Cretaceous angiosperms from the Far East of the USSR. Palaeontographica, B, 142: 105-116.Google Scholar

  • KRASSILOV V. 1976. Tsagayanskaya flora Amurskoy oblasti. Nauka, Moskva (in Russian).Google Scholar

  • KUBITZKI K., KALLUNKI J.A., DURETTO M. & WILSON P.G. 2011. Rutaceae: 276-356. In: Kubitzki K. (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants vol. 10 Flowering Plants - Eudicots Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar

  • KVAČEK Z. 1995. Limnobiophyllum Krassilov - a fossil link between the Araceae and the Lemnaceae. Aquatic Bot., 50: 49-61.Google Scholar

  • LESQUEREUX L. 1878. Contributions to the flora of the Western Territories II. The Tertiary flora. Rept. U.S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 7: 1-366.Google Scholar

  • MANCHESTER S.R. 1999. Biogeographical relationships of North American Tertiary floras. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 86: 472-522.Google Scholar

  • MCIVER E.E. & BASINGER J.F. 1993. Flora of the Ravenscrag Formation (Paleocene), southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Palaeontogr. Canad., 10: 1-167.Google Scholar

  • MELCHIOR R.C. & HALL J.W. 1983. Some megaspores and other small fossils from the Wannagan Creek site (Paleocene), North Dakota. Palynology, 7(1):133-145.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MOISEEVA M.G. 2008. New Angiosperms from the Maastrichtian of the Amaam Lagoon Area (Northeastern Russia). Paleont. J., 42(3): 313-327.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • PIGG K.B. & DEVORE M.L. 2010. Floristic composition and variation in late Paleocene to early Eocene floras in North America. Bull. Geosci., 85(1): 135-154.Google Scholar

  • SERBET R. 1997. Morphologically and anatomically preserved fossil plants from Alberta, Canada: A flora that supported the dinosaur fauna during the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian). PhD dissertation. College of Arts and Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH.Google Scholar

  • STOCKEY R.A., HOFFMAN G.L. & ROTHWELL G.W. 1997. The fossil monocot Limnobiophyllum scutatum: Resolving the phylogeny of Lemnaceae. Amer. J. Bot., 84: 355-368.Google Scholar

  • WILF P. 2002. Late Paleocene-early Eocene climate changes in southwestern Wyoming: Paleobotanical analysis. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 112(2): 292-307.Google Scholar

  • WING S.L. 1998. Late Paleocene-early Eocene floral and climatic change in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climatic and biotic events in the marine and terrestrial records: 371-391. In: Aubry M., Lucas S., & Berggren W. (eds), Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Biotic and Climatic Events. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar

  • WING S.L. & CURRANO E.D. 2013. Plant response to a global greenhouse event 56 million years ago. Amer. J. Bot. 100(7): 1234-1254.Google Scholar

  • WING S.L., ALROY J. & HICKEY L.J. 1995. Plant and mammal diversity in the Paleocene to early Eocene of the Bighorn Basin. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimat, Palaeoecol., 115: 117-155.Google Scholar

  • WING S.L., HARRINGTON G.J., SMITH F.A., BLOCH J.I., BOYER D.M. & FREEMAN K.H. 2005. Transient floral change and rapid global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Science, 310: 993-996. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2014-01-03

Accepted: 2014-03-10

Published Online: 2014-06-17

Published in Print: 2014-06-01


Citation Information: Acta Palaeobotanica, ISSN (Online) 2082-0259, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/acpa-2014-0002.

Export Citation

© by Steven R. Manchester. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Héctor E. Rivera-Sylva, Eberhard Frey, Wolfgang Stinnesbeck, José Rubén Guzmán-Gutiérrez, and Arturo H. González-González
Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 2017, Volume 75, Page 66
[2]
N. P. Maslova, D. V. Vasilenko, and T. M. Kodrul
Paleontological Journal, 2016, Volume 50, Number 2, Page 202

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in