Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Acta Palaeobotanica

The Journal of W. Szafer Institute of Botany of Polish Academy of Sciences

2 Issues per year


SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.825
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.667
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.267

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2082-0259
See all formats and pricing

Megaflora of the Australian Triassic–Jurassic: a taxonomic revision

Gary A. Pattemore
  • School of Earth Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
  • Email:
Published Online: 2016-12-13 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/acpa-2016-0008

Abstract

Umkomasiaceans are the most commonly recorded components of Gondwanan Triassic floras but they are not represented subsequently in that region. Their diversity appears to have substantially declined prior to the Rhaetian. Lower and Middle Jurassic floras in Australia and elsewhere in Gondwana are strikingly different from those of the Triassic, comprising ferns, lycopods, conifers, cycads, and bennettitaleans. The fern Cladophlebis Brongniart 1849 emend. Seward 1894 dominated coal-forming paludal environments during the Middle Jurassic in Queensland and it is one of the most commonly preserved plants in the Eastern Gondwanan Jurassic. Ginkgoaleans were present in Eastern Gondwana until near the end-Triassic but were absent below ca 60°S palaeolatitude during the Early and Middle Jurassic.

The type specimen of Dicroidium superbum (Shirley 1898) Townrow 1957 emend. nov. has been inaccurately represented in the published record. Consequently, many specimens belonging to the species have been incorrectly assigned to other umkomasiacean species. Misidentifications and considerably enlarged circumscriptions of some species have resulted in an erroneous and simplistic morpho-continuum concept supposedly linking umkomasiacean fronds. Several commonly occurring umkomasiacean species are re-assessed with particular attention to their type specimens, two of which are accurately figured here for the first time. This re-assessment, together with evidence from allied fructifications and wood, supports the view that umkomasiacean fronds belong to several genera. Most umkomasiacean lineages probably terminated prior to the Rhaetian; however, Zuberia Frenguelli 1943 emend. Artabe 1990 persisted to near the close of the Triassic.

Keywords: pteridosperms; Beaniaceae; Ginkgoaceae; Isoetaceae; Osmundaceae; Umkomasiaceae; Triassic; Jurassic; Gondwana

References

  • ALBERSHEIM P., DARVILL A., ROBERTS K., SEDEROFF R. & STAEHELIN A. 2010. Plant cell walls: from chemistry to biology. Taylor & Francis Group, New York.

  • ANDERSON H.M. & ANDERSON J.M. 2008. Molteno ferns: Late Triassic biodiversity in southern Africa. Strelitzia, 21: i-vii, 1-259.

  • ANDERSON H.M., HOLMES W.B.K. & FITNESS L.A. 2008. Stems with attached Dicroidium leaves from the Ipswich Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia. Mem. Qd Mus., 52(2): 1-12.

  • ANDERSON J.M. & ANDERSON H.M. 1970. A preliminary review of the biostratigraphy of the uppermost Permian, Triassic and lowermost Jurassic of Gondwanaland. Palaeontol. Afr., 13 (suppl.): 1-22, charts 1-22.

  • ANDERSON J.M. & ANDERSON H.M. 1983. Palaeoflora of Southern Africa: Molteno Formation (Triassic): Vol. 1: Part 1 Introduction. Part 2 Dicroidium. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

  • ANDERSON J.M. & ANDERSON H.M. 1989. Palaeoflora of Southern Africa: Molteno Formation (Triassic): Vol. 2: Gymnosperms (excluding Dicroidium). A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

  • ANDERSON J.M. & ANDERSON H.M. 2003. Heyday of the gymnosperms: systematics and diversity of the Late Triassic Molteno fructifications. Strelitzia, 15: i-viii, 1-398.

  • ANDREWS S.B. 1990. Ferns of Queensland: a handbook to the ferns and fern allies. Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane.

  • ANTEVS E. 1914. Die Gattungen Thinnfeldia Ett. und Dicroidium. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskaps Akad. Handl., 51: 1-71.

  • ARBER E.A.N. 1917. The earlier Mesozoic floras of New Zealand. Bull. N.Z. Geol. Surv., Palaeontol., 6: 2-78.

  • ARCHANGELSKY S. 1965. Fossil ginkgoales from the Tico flora, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Natural History), Geology, 10: 119-137.

  • ARCHANGELSKY S. 1968. Studies on Triassic fossil plants from Argentina. IV. The leaf genus Dicroidium and its possible relation to Rhexoxylon stems. Palaeontology, 11: 500-512.

  • ARTABE A.E. 1990. Revalidación del genero triasico Zuberia Frenguelli 1943, Familia Corystospermaceae. Rev. Mus. La Plata n.s., Paleontol., 9(55): 145-157.

  • ARTABE A.E., MOREL E.M., GANUZA D.G., ZAVATTIERI A.M. & SPALLETTI L.A. 2007. La paleoflora triásica de Potrerillos, Provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Ameghiniana, 44: 279-301.

  • AUGIER A. 1801. Essai d’une nouvelle classification des végétaux. Bruyset Ainé et Comp., Lyon.

  • AXSMITH B.J., TAYLOR E.L., TAYLOR T.N. & CÚNEO N.R. 2000. New perspectives on the Mesozoic seed fern order Corystospermales based on attached organs from the Triassic of Antarctica. Amer. J. Bot., 87: 757-768.

  • BACHAN A., SCHOOTBRUGGE B., FIEBIG J., McROBERTS C.A., CIARAPICA G. & PAYNE J.L. 2012. Carbon cycle dynamics following the end- Triassic mass extinction: constraints from paired δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg records. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13(9): 1-24.

  • BALDONI A.M. 1980. Revision de las especies del género Xylopteris (Corystospermaceae) en el triásico de Argentina, Australia y Sudafrica. Ameghiniana, 17: 135-155.

  • BALME B.E. 1995. Fossil in situ spores and pollen grains: an annotated catalogue. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 87: 81-323.

  • BARALE G., PHILIPPE M., TORRES T. & COVACEVICH V. 1994. Triassic floras from Williams Point, Livingston Island (South Shetland, northern Antarctica). Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Ser. 2. Sciences de la terre et des planètes, 319: 141-147.

  • BARANOVA M.A. 1987. Historical development of the present classification of morphological types of stomates. Bot. Rev., 53: 53-79.

  • BARBACKA M., BODOR E., JARZYNKA A., KUSTATSCHER E., PACYNA G., POPA M.E., SCANU G.G., THÉVENARD F. & ZIAJA, J. 2014. European Jurassic floras: statistics and palaeoenvironmental proxies. Acta Palaeobot., 54(2): 173-195, suppl. data. DOI: 10.2478/acpa-2014-0011 [Crossref]

  • BARBONI R. & DUTRA T.L. 2015. First record of ginkgo-related fertile organs (Hamshawvia, Stachyopitys) and leaves (Baiera, Sphenobaiera) in the Triassic of Brazil, Santa Maria Formation. J. S. Amer. Earth Sci., 63: 417-435, suppl. data.

  • BARCLAY R., McELWAIN J., DILCHER D. & SAGEMAN B. 2007. The cuticle database: developing an interactive tool for taxonomic and paleoenvironmental study of the fossil cuticle record. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 258: 39-55.

  • BARGEL H., BARTHLOTT W., KOCH K., SCHREIBER L. & NEINHUIS C. 2004. Plant cuticles: multifunctional interfaces between plant and environment: 171-194. In: Hemsley A.R. & Poole I. (eds), The evolution of plant physiology. Linnean Society Symposium Series, 21.

  • BARTOLINI A., GUEX J., SPANGENBERG J.E., SCHOENE B., TAYLOR D.G., SCHALTEGGER U. & ATUDOREI V. 2012. Disentangling the Hettangian carbon isotope record: implications for the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13: 1-11.

  • BAUER K., KUSTATSCHER E. & KRINGS M. 2013. The ginkgophytes from the German Kupferschiefer (Permian), with considerations on the taxonomic history and use of Baiera and Sphenobaiera. Bull. Geosciences, 88: 539-556.

  • BELL S., HARRINGTON H.J. & McKELLAR I.C. 1956. Lower Mesozoic plant fossils from Black Jacks, Waitaki River, South Canterbury. Trans. R. Soc. N.Z., 83: 663-672.

  • BERCHTOLD F.G. & PRESL J.S. 1820. O přirozenosti rostlin. K.W. Endersa, Prague.

  • BIRKENMAJER K. & OCIEPA A.M. 2008. Plantbearing Jurassic strata at Hope Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (West Antarctica): geology and fossilplant description. Stud. Geol. Polonica, 128: 5-96.

  • BOMFLEUR B. & KERP H. 2010. Dicroidium diversity in the Upper Triassic of north Victoria Land, East Antarctica. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 160: 67-101. DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2010.02.006 [Crossref]

  • BOMFLEUR B., POTT C. & KERP H. 2011a. Plant assemblages from the Shafer Peak Formation (Lower Jurassic), North Victoria Land, Transantarctic Mountains. Antarct. Sci., 23(2): 188-208. DOI: 10.1017/S0954102010000866 [Crossref]

  • BOMFLEUR B., SCHNEIDER J.W., SCHÖNER R., VIERECK-GÖTTE L. & KERP H. 2007. Exceptionally well-preserved Triassic and Early Jurassic floras from North Victoria Land, Antarctica: 1-4. In: Cooper A.K. & Raymond C.R. (eds), Antarctica: a keystone in a changing world. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, U.S. Geol. Surv., OF-2007-1047, extend. abstr. 034.

  • BOMFLEUR B., SCHNEIDER J.W., SCHÖNER R., VIERECK-GÖTTE L. & KERP H. 2011b. Fossil sites in the continental Victoria and Ferrar Groups (Triassic-Jurassic) of North Victoria Land, Antarctica. Polarforschung, 80: 88-99.

  • BOOM A., DAMSTÉ J.S.S. & de LEEUW J.W. 2005. Cutan, a common aliphatic biopolymer in cuticles of drought-adapted plants. Org. Geochem., 36: 595-601. [Crossref]

  • BOUCHER L.D., TAYLOR E.L. & TAYLOR T.N. 1993. Dicroidium from the Triassic of Antarctica: 39-46. In: Lucas S.G. & Morales M. (eds), The non marine Triassic. Bull. New Mexico Mus. Nat. Hist. Sci., 3.

  • BOUREAU E. & DOUBINGER J. 1975. Traité de paléobotanique. Vol. 4(2) Pteridophylla. Masson, Paris.

  • BRONGNIART M.A. 1825a. Observations sur les végétaux fossiles renfermés dans les grès de Hoer en Scanie. Ann. Sci. Nat., 4: 1-504.

  • BRONGNIART M.A. 1825b. Atlas des tomes 4, 5, 6. Ann. Sci. Nat., 4-6: 1-81, 56 plates.

  • BRONGNIART M.A. 1849. Tableau des genres de végétaux fossiles considérés sous le point de vue de leur classification botanique et de leur distribution géologique. L. Martinet, Paris.

  • BRONGNIART M.A. 1850. Chronological exposition of the periods of vegetation and the different floras which have successively occupied the surface of the earth. II. Kingdom of the gymnosperms. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2)6(33): 192-203.

  • BROWN R. 1810. Prodromus floræ Novæ Hollandiæ et Insulæ Van-Diemen: exhibens characteres plantarum quas annis 1802-1805. R. Taylor and Co., London.

  • BURNHAM D.A. 2007. Archaeopteryx - a re-evaluation suggesting an arboreal habitat and an intermediate stage in trees down origin of flight. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Paläontol., Abh., 245: 33-44.

  • CALVER C.R. 2009. Geological setting of Jurassic plant fossils near Lune River. Rec. Tasm. Geol. Surv., 2009/02: 1-14.

  • CAMERON R.G., MEAKIN N.S., POGSON D.J., COLQUHOUN G.P., YOO E.K., HENDERSON G.A.M., WARREN A.Y.E., & MORGAN E.J. 1999. Sydney-Gunnedah Basin: 281-312. In: Facer R.A. & Stewart J.R. (eds), Explanatory notes. Dubbo 1:250000 geological sheet SI/55-4, 2nd ed. Geological Survey of New South Wales and Australian Geological Survey Organisation.

  • CANTRILL D.J. 2000. A new macroflora from the South Orkney Islands, Antarctica: evidence of an Early to Middle Jurassic age for the Powell Island Conglomerate. Antarct. Sci., 12: 185-195. DOI: 10.1017/S0954102000000249 [Crossref]

  • CANTRILL D.J. & HUNTER M.A. 2005. Macrofossil floras of the Latady Basin, Antarctic Peninsula. N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys., 48: 537-553.

  • CANTRILL D.J. & POOLE I. 2012. The Vegetation of Antarctica Through Geological Time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  • CANTRILL D.J. & WEBB J.A. 1998. Permineralized pleuromeid lycopsid remains from the Early Triassic Arcadia Formation, Queensland, Australia. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 102: 189-211.

  • CANTRILL D.J., DRINNAN A.N. & WEBB J.A. 1995. Late Triassic plant fossils from the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Antarct. Sci., 7: 51-62.

  • CARIGLINO B., ZAVATTIERI A.M., GUTIÉRREZ P.R. & BALARINO M.L. 2016. The paleobotanical record of the Triassic Cerro de Las Cabras Formation at its type locality, Potrerillos, Mendoza (Uspallata Group): an historical account and first record of fossil flora. Ameghiniana, 53: 184-204. [Crossref]

  • CARPENTER K.J. 2005. Stomatal architecture and evolution in basal angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot., 92: 1595-1615.

  • CARPENTER K.J. 2006. Specialized structures in the leaf epidermis of basal angiosperms: morphology, distribution, and homology. Amer. J. Bot., 93: 665-681.

  • CARRUTHERS W. 1872. Notes on fossil plants from Queensland, Australia. Quart. J. Geol. Soc., 28: 350-358.

  • CHAPMAN F. 1927. Monograph on the Triassic flora of Bald Hill, Bacchus Marsh, Victoria. Mem. Mus. Victoria, 7: 121-155.

  • CHAPMAN F. & COOKSON I.C. 1926. A revision of the “Sweet” collection of Triassic plant remains from Leigh Creek, South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 50: 163-178.

  • CHATTERJEE S., TEWARI R. & AGNIHOTRI D. 2013. A Dicroidium flora from the Triassic of Allan Hills, South Victoria Land, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica. Alcheringa, 37: 209-221. DOI: 10.1080/03115518.2013.736799 [Crossref]

  • CLEAL C.J., REES P.M., ZIJLSTRA G. & CANTRILL D.J. 2006. A clarification of the type of Nilssoniopteris Nathorst (fossil Gymnospermophyta, Bennettitales). Taxon, 55: 219-222. [Crossref]

  • COOK A., MAGEE J., ROBERTS K., DOUGLAS K., O’CALLIGHAN K. & SANDERSON R. (eds) 2012. Australia’s fossil heritage: a catalogue of important Australian fossil sites. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

  • COOK A.G., McKELLAR J.L. & DRAPER J.J. 2013. Eromanga Basin: 523-533. In: Jell P.A. (ed.), Geology of Queensland. Geological Survey of Queensland, Brisbane.

  • CURRAN J.M. 1885. On some fossil plants from Dubbo, New South Wales. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 9: 250-254.

  • D’ANGELO J.A. 2006. Analysis by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of Johnstonia (Corystospermales, Corystospermaceae) cuticles and compressions from the Triassic of Cacheuta, Mendoza, Argentina. Ameghiniana, 43: 669-685.

  • DAVID T.W.E. & BROWNE W.R. 1950. The geology of the Commonwealth of Australia. E. Arnold, London.

  • DECOMBEIX A.-L., BOMFLEUR B., TAYLOR E.L. & TAYLOR T.N. 2014. New insights into the anatomy, development, and affinities of corystosperm trees from the Triassic of Antarctica. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 203: 22-34. DOI: 10.1016/j. revpalbo.2014.01.002 [Crossref]

  • de JERSEY N.J. & McKELLAR J.L. 2013. The palynology of the Triassic-Jurassic transition in southeastern Queensland, Australia, and correlation with New Zealand. Palynology, 37: 77-114. DOI: 10.1080/01916122.2012.718609 [Crossref]

  • DIBNER V. 1998. The geology of Franz Josef Land - an introduction: 10-17. In: Solheim A., Musatov E. & Heintz N. (eds), Geological aspects of Franz Josef Land and the northernmost Barents Sea - the northern Barents Sea geotraverse. Norsk Polarinstitutt, 151.

  • DOUGLAS J.G. 1969. The Mesozoic floras of Victoria, parts 1 and 2. Mem. Geol. Surv. Victoria, 28: 1-310.

  • DOUGLAS J.G. 1988. Triassic: 213-216. In: Douglas J.G. and Ferguson J.A. (eds), Geology of Victoria. Geological Society of Australia, Melbourne.

  • DOWELD A.B. 2013. (2244-2245) Proposals to conserve the names Cladophlebis with a conserved type and Pecopteris denticulata (Cladophlebis denticulata) against P. ligata (fossil Pteridophyta: Osmundopsida). Taxon, 62(6): 1343-1345. DOI: 10.12705/626.30 [Crossref]

  • DRINNAN A.N. & CHAMBERS T.C. 1986. Early Cretaceous plants, Koonwarra: 1-77. In: Jell P.A. & Roberts J. (eds), Plants and invertebrates from the Lower Cretaceous Koonwarra Fossil Bed, South Gippsland, Victoria. Mem. Assoc. Aust. Palaeontol., 3.

  • DUDDY I.R. 2003. Mesozoic: a time of change in tectonic regime: 239-286. In: Birch W.D. (ed.), Geology of Victoria. Geol. Soc. Aust., Spec. Publ., 23.

  • DUN W.S. 1909. Notes on fossil plants from Lower Mesozoic strata, Benolong, Dubbo District. Rec. Geol. Surv. N.S.W., 8: 311-317.

  • du TOIT A.L. 1927. The fossil flora of the Upper Karroo beds. Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 22: 289-420.

  • DYPVIK H., SOKOLOV A., PCELLNA T., FJELLSÅ B., BJÆRKE T., KORCHINSKAYA M. & NAGY J. 1998. The Triassic succession of Franz Josef Land, stratigraphy and sedimentology of three wells from Alexandra, Hayes and Graham Bell Islands: 50-82. In: Solheim A., Musatov E. & Heintz N. (eds), Geological aspects of Franz Josef Land and the northernmost Barents Sea - the northern Barents Sea geotraverse. Norsk Polarinstitutt, 151.

  • ENGLER A. & PRANTL K. 1902. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen. Wilhelm Engelman, Leipzig, 1(4): 1-808.

  • ESCAPA I.H., TAYLOR E.L., CÚNEO R., BOMFLEUR B., BERGENE J., SERBET R. & TAYLOR T.N. 2011. Triassic floras of Antarctica: plant diversity and distribution in high paleolatitude communities. Palaios, 26: 522-544. [Crossref]

  • FEISTMANTEL O. 1878. Palaeozoische und mesozoische Flora des östlichen Australiens. Palaeontographica, Beitr., 3: 55-131.

  • FEISTMANTEL O. 1879. Palaeozoische und mesozoische Flora des östlichen Australien. Palaeontographica, Beitr., 3: 133-195.

  • FEISTMANTEL O. 1880a. Notes on the fossil flora of eastern Australia and Tasmania. J. Proc. R. Soc. N.S.W., 14: 103-118.

  • FEISTMANTEL O. 1880b. Fossil flora of the Gondwana system. Vol .1. Preface. Mem. Geol. Surv. India, Palaeont. Indica, (2)1: v-xl.

  • FEISTMANTEL O. 1887. Über die pflanzen- und kohlenführenden Schichten in Indien (beziehungsw. Asien), Afrika und Australien und darin vorkommende glaciale Erscheinungen. Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., 1887: 3-102.

  • FEISTMANTEL O. 1888. Über die geologischen und palaeontologischen Verhältnisse des Gondwána- System in Tasmanien und Vergleichung m. andern Ländern, nebst einem systematischen Verzeichniss der im australischen Gondwána-System vorkommenden Arten. Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., 1888: 584-654.

  • FEISTMANTEL O. 1889. Übersichtliche Darstellung der geologisch-palaeontologischen Verhältnisse Süd-Afrikas. 1. Die Karoo-Formation und die dieselbe unterlagernden Schichten. Abh. Math.- Naturwiss. Cl. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., 7(3): 1-89.

  • FEISTMANTEL O. 1890. Geological and palaeontological relations of the coal and plant-bearing beds of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Age in eastern Australia and Tasmania. Mem. Geol. Surv. N.S.W., Palaeontol., 3: 1-184.

  • FLETCHER H.O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Mem. Aust. Mus., 13: 1-167.

  • FLINT J.C.E. & GOULD R.E. 1975. A note on the fossil megafloras of the Nymboida and Red Cliff Coal Measures, Southern Clarence-Moreton Basin, N.S.W. J. Proc. R. Soc. N.S.W., 108: 70-74.

  • FLORIN R. 1936. Die fossilen Ginkgophyten von Franz-Joseph-Land nebst Erörterungen über vermeintliche Cordaitales Mesozoischen. Alters. I. Spezieller Teil. Palaeontographica, B, 81(3-6): 71-173.

  • FRENGUELLI J. 1941. Dicroidium stelznerianum (Gein.) n. comb. Not. Mus. La Plata Paleontol., 6(33): 393-403.

  • FRENGUELLI J. 1943. Reseña crítica de los géneros atribuidos a la Serie de Thinnfeldia. Rev. Mus. La Plata, Paleontol., 12(2): 225-342.

  • FRENGUELLI J. 1944. Las especies del género Zuberia en la Argentina. An. Mus. La Plata n.s. Paleontol. Paleobot. B, 2(1): 1-30.

  • FRENGUELLI J. 1946. Contribución al conocimiento de la flora del Gondwana Superior en la Argentina, XXXIII. Ginkgoales de los estratos de Potrerillos en la precordillera de Mendoza. Not. Mus. La Plata Paleontol., 11(87): 100-127.

  • FRENGUELLI J. 1947. El género Cladophlebis y sus representantes en la Argentina. An. Mus. La Plata n.s. Paleontol. Paleobot. B, 2(2): 1-74.

  • FRENGUELLI J. 1950. Addendo a la flora del Gondwana Superior en la Argentina. II. Tetraptilon heteromerum n. sp. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent., 5: 15-30.

  • GEE C.T. 1989. Revision of the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous flora from Hope Bay, Antarctica. Palaeontographica, B, 213: 149-214.

  • GEINITZ H.B. 1876. Ueber rhaetische Pflanzen und Thierreste in den Argentinischen Provinzen La Rioja, San Juan und Mendoza. Palaeontographica Supp., 3(2): 1-14.

  • GNAEDINGER S. 2012. Ginkgoalean woods from the Jurassic of Argentina: taxonomic considerations and palaeogeographical distribution. Geobios, 45: 187-198. [Crossref]

  • GNAEDINGER S. & HERBST R. 1998. La flora triásica del Grupo El Tranquilo, Provincia de Santa Cruz (Patagonia). Parte IV. Pteridospermae. Ameghiniana, 35: 33-52.

  • GNAEDINGER S. & HERBST R. 2001. Pteridospermas triásicas del Norte Chico de Chile. Ameghiniana, 38: 281-298.

  • GORDENKO N.V. & BROUSHKIN A.V. 2015. Ginkgoales: some problems of systematics and phylogeny. Paleontol. J., 49: 546-551.

  • GOTHAN W. 1912. Über die Gattung Thinnfeldia Ettingshausen. Abh. Naturhist. Ges. Nürnberg, 19: 67-80.

  • GOULD R.E. 1968. Morphology of Equisetum laterale Phillips, 1829, and E. bryanii sp. nov. from the Mesozoic of south-eastern Queensland. Aust. J. Bot., 16: 153-176.

  • GOULD R.E. 1969 (unpubl.). Some palaeobotanical studies of the coal measures of Queensland. PhD thesis, Department of Geology and Mineralogy, The University of Queensland, 241 pp., 19 plates.

  • GOULD R.E. 1974. The fossil flora of the Walloon Coal Measures: a survey. Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 85(3): 33-41.

  • GRAUVOGEL-STAMM L. & LUGARDON B. 2001. The Triassic lycopsids Pleuromeia and Annalepis: relationships, evolution, and origin. Amer. Fern J., 91: 115-149.

  • GUEX J. 2016. Sublethal environmental stress: 17-25. In: Retrograde evolution during major extinction crises. Springer, Switzerland.

  • GUPTA N.S., COLLINSON M.E., BRIGGS D.E.G., EVERSHED R.P. & PANCOST R.D. 2006. Reinvestigation of the occurrence of cutan in plants: implications for the leaf fossil record. Paleobiology, 32: 432-449. [Crossref]

  • HALLE T.G. 1908. Zur Kenntniss Mesozoischen Equisetales Schwedens. Kungl. Svenska VetenskapsAkad. Handl., 43(1): 1-57.

  • HALLE T.G. 1913. The Mesozoic flora of Grahamland. Wissenschaftliche ergebnisse der Schwedischen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903, 3(14): 1-123.

  • HARRIS T.M. 1931. The fossil flora of Scoresby Sound East Greenland. Part 1. Cryptogams (exclusive of Lycopodiales). Meddel. Grønland, 85(2): 1-104.

  • HARRIS T.M. 1935. The fossil flora of Scoresby Sound East Greenland. Part 4. Ginkgolaes, Coniferales, Lycopodiales and isolated fructifications. Meddel. Grønland, 112(1): 1-176.

  • HARRIS T.M. 1961. The Yorkshire Jurassic flora. I. Thallophyta-Pteridophyta. British Museum (Natural History), London.

  • HARRIS T.M. 1964. The Yorkshire Jurassic flora. II. Caytoniales, Cycadales & pteridosperms. British Museum (Natural History), London.

  • HARRIS T.M. 1969. The Yorkshire Jurassic Flora. III. Bennettitales. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), 675: 1-186.

  • HARRIS T.M. & MILLINGTON W. 1974. The Yorkshire Jurassic flora. IV. 1 Gingkoales. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), 724: 1-79.

  • HATHWAY B. 2000. Continental rift to back-arc basin: Jurassic-Cretaceous stratigraphical and structural evolution of the Larsen Basin, Antarctic Peninsula. J. Geol. Soc., 157: 417-432.

  • HELBY R. & MARTIN A.R.H. 1965. Cyclostrobus gen. nov., cones of lycopsidean plants from the Narrabeen Group (Triassic) of New South Wales. Aust. J. Bot., 13: 389-404.

  • HERBST R. 1977. Sobre Marattiales (Filicopsidae) triásicas de Argentina y Australia. Parte II. Los géneros Danaeopsis y Rienitsia. Ameghiniana, 14: 19-32.

  • HERBST R. 1978. Revisión de las especies Australásicas de Cladophlebis (Bgt.). Facena, 2: 3-28.

  • HILL D., PLAYFORD G. & WOODS J.T. (eds) 1965. Triassic fossils of Queensland. Queensland Palaeontographical Society, Brisbane.

  • HILL D., PLAYFORD G. & WOODS J.T. (eds) 1966. Jurassic fossils of Queensland. Queensland Palaeontographical Society, Brisbane.

  • HOCKING R.M., MARCOS G.W. & ARCHER R.H. 1976. Gingin urban geology 2035 II. Geological Survey of Western Australia [annotated map sheet].

  • HOLMES W.B.K. 1982. The Middle Triassic flora from Benolong, near Dubbo, central-western New South Wales. Alcheringa, 6: 1-33. [Crossref]

  • HOLMES W.B.K. 2000. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, NSW, Australia. Part 1: Bryophyta, Sphenophyta. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 122: 43-68.

  • HOLMES W.B.K. 2001a. Equisetalean plant remains from the Early to Middle Triassic of New South Wales, Australia. Rec. Aust. Mus., 53: 9-20. [Crossref]

  • HOLMES W.B.K. 2001b. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 2. Filicophyta. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 123: 39-87.

  • HOLMES W.B.K. 2003. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 3. Fern-like foliage. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 124: 53-108.

  • HOLMES W.B.K. & ANDERSON H.M. 2005a. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 4. Umkomasiaceae. Dicroidium and affiliated fructifications. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 126: 1-37.

  • HOLMES W.B.K. & ANDERSON H.M. 2005b. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 5. The genera Lepidopteris, Kurtziana, Rochipteris and Walkomiopteris. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 126: 39-79.

  • HOLMES W.B.K. & ANDERSON H.M. 2007. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 6. Ginkgophyta. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 128: 155-200.

  • HOLMES W.B.K., ANDERSON H.M. & WEBB J.A. 2010. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 8. The Genera Nilssonia, Taeniopteris, Linguifolium, Gontriglossa and Scoresbya. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 131: 1-26.

  • JACK R.L. & ETHERIDGE R. 1892. Geology and palaeontology of Queensland and New Guinea. Publ. Geol. Surv. Qd, 92: pp. i-xxxi, 1-768, plates 1-68, maps 1-6.

  • JACOB K. & JACOB C. 1950. A preliminary account of the structure of the cuticles of Dicroidium (Thinnfeldia) fronds from the Mesozoic of Australia. Proc. Natl Inst. Sci. India, 16: 101-126.

  • JAIN R.K. & DELEVORYAS T. 1967. A Middle Triassic flora from the Cacheuta Formation, Minas de Petroleo, Argentina. Palaeontology, 10: 564-589.

  • JANSSON I.-M., McLOUGHLIN S., VAJDA V. & POLE M. 2008. An Early Jurassic flora from the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 150: 5-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo. 2008.01.002 [Crossref]

  • JELL P.A. 2013. Tarong Basin: pp. 396-397. In: Jell P.A. (ed.), Geology of Queensland. Geological Survey of Queensland, Brisbane.

  • JELL P.A. & McKELLAR J.L. 2013. Callide Basin: p. 398. In: Jell P.A. (ed.), Geology of Queensland. Geological Survey of Queensland, Brisbane.

  • JELL P.A., McKELLAR J.L. & DRAPER J.J. 2013. Clarence-Moreton Basin: 542-546. In: Jell P.A. (ed.), Geology of Queensland. Geological Survey of Queensland, Brisbane.

  • JOHNSTON R.M. 1885. General observations regarding the classification of the Upper Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks of Tasmania, together with a full description of all the known Tasmanian coal plants, including a considerable number of new species. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm., 1885: 343-387.

  • JOHNSTON R.M. 1886. Fresh contribution to our knowledge of the plants of Mesozoic age in Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm., 1886: 160-183.

  • JOHNSTON R.M. 1888. Systematic account of the geology of Tasmania. W.T. Strutt, Hobart.

  • JOHNSTON R.M. 1893. Further contributions to the fossil flora of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm., 1893: 170-179.

  • JOHNSTON R.M. 1895. Further contributions to the history of the fossil flora of Tasmania. Part II. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm., 1895: 57-63.

  • JONES D.L. 1993. Cycads of the world, ancient plant in today’s landscape. Reeds New Holland, Sydney.

  • JONES O.A. & de JERSEY N.J. 1947a. The flora of the Ipswich Coal Measures: morphology and floral succession. Pap. Dep. Geol. Univ. Qd, 3(3): 1-88.

  • JONES O.A. & de JERSEY N.J. 1947b. Fertile Equisetales and other plants from the Brighton Beds. Pap. Dep. Geol. Univ. Qd, 3(4): 1-16.

  • JORGENSEN P.J. & FIELDING C.R. 1996. Facies architecture of alluvial floodbasin deposits: threedimensional data from the Upper Triassic Callide Coal Measures of east-central Queensland, Australia. Sedimentology, 43: 479-495. [Crossref]

  • KERR J.W. 1990. Rosewood and Marburg: the early years. J. R. Hist. Soc. Qd, 14: 195-197.

  • KIRCHNER M. & van KONIJNENBURG-van CITTERT J.H.A. 1994. Schmeissneria microstachys (Presl, 1833) Kirchner et van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, comb. nov. and Karkenia haupymannii Kirchner et van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, sp. nov., plants with ginkgoalean affinities from the Liassic of Germany. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 83: 199-215.

  • KŒTTLITZ R. 1898. Observations on the geology of Franz Josef Land. Quart. J. Geol. Soc., 54: 620-645.

  • KOKOGIAN D.A., SPALLETTI L.A., MOREL E.M., ARTABE A.E., MARTINEZ R.N., ALCOBER O.A., MILANA J.P. & ZAVATTIERI A.M. 2001. Estratigrafía del Triásico argentino: 23-54. In: Artabe A.E., Morel E.M. & Zamuner A.B. (eds) El Sistema Triásico en la Argentina. Fundación Museo de La Plata “Francisco Pascasio Moreno”, La Plata, Argentina.

  • KON’NO E. 1973. New species of Pleuromeia and Neocalamites from the upper Scythian bed in the Kitakami Massif, Japan: with a brief note on some equisetacean plants from the Upper Permian bed in the Kitakami Massif. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 2, Geol., 43(2): 99-115.

  • KOUWENBERG L.L.R., HINES R.R. & McELWAIN J.C. 2007. A new transfer technique to extract and process thin and fragmented fossil cuticle using polyester overlays. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 145: 243-248. DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.11.002 [Crossref]

  • KURTZ F. 1921. Atlas de plantas fósiles de la República Argentina. Actas Acad. Nac. Ci. Córdoba, 7: 133-153.

  • KUSTATSCHER E., WACHTLER M. & van KONIJNENBURG- van CITTERT J.H.A. 2010. Lycophytes from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) locality Kühwiesenkopf (Monte Prà della Vacca) in the Dolomites (northern Italy). Palaeontology, 53: 595-626. [Crossref]

  • KWITKO G. 1995. Triassic intramontane basins: 98-101. In: Drexel J.F. & Preiss W.V. (eds) The geology of South Australia. Vol. 2. The Phanerozoic. Bull. Geol. Surv. S. Aust., 54 [digital version with minor corrections 2012].

  • LARSÉN E. & RYDIN C. 2016. Disentangling the phylogeny of Isoetes (Isoetales), using nuclear and plastid data. Int. J. Pl. Sci., 177: 157-174. DOI: 10.1086/684179 [Crossref]

  • LELE K.M. 1962. Studies in the Indian Middle Gondwana flora: 1. On Dicroidium from the South Rewa Gondwana Basin. Palaeobotanist, 10: 48-68.

  • MARTYNOV I. 1820. Techno-botanical dictionary. Imperial Russian Academy, St. Petersburg [in Russian].

  • McELWAIN J.C., BEERLING D.J. & WOODWARD F.I. 1999. Fossil plants and global warming at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Science, 285(5432): 1386-1390.

  • McELWAIN J.C., WAGNER P.J. & HESSELBO S.P. 2009. Fossil plant relative abundances indicate sudden loss of Late Triassic biodiversity in East Greenland. Science, 324(5934): 1554-1556. DOI: 10.1126/science.1171706 [Crossref]

  • McKELLAR J.L. 1978. Palynology of a sample from the Walloon Coal Measures at Rosewood Consolidated Colliery. Qd Govt Min. J., 79(924): 530-532.

  • McKELLAR J.L. 2013. Fig. 7.2. Detailed correlation chart across main Queensland basins of the Great Australian Superbasin and comparison of their stratigraphic columns to the international standard and to Australian zonal schemes: 518-519. In: Jell P.A. (ed.), Geology of Queensland. Geological Survey of Queensland, Brisbane.

  • McLOUGHLIN S. & DRINNAN A.N. 1995. A Middle Jurassic flora from the Walloon Coal Measures, Mutdapilly, Queensland, Australia. Mem. Qd Mus., 38(1): 257-272.

  • McLOUGHLIN S. & DRINNAN A.N. 1997. Revised stratigraphy of the Permian Bainmedart Coal Measures, northern Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Geol. Mag., 134: 335-353.

  • McLOUGHLIN S. & POTT C. 2009. The Jurassic flora of Western Australia. GFF (J. Geol. Soc. Sweden), 131: 113-136.

  • McLOUGHLIN S., TOSOLINI A.-M.P., NAGALINGUM N.S. & DRINNAN A.N. 2002. Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) flora and fauna of the Lower Strzelecki Group, Gippsland Basin, Victoria. Mem. Assoc. Aust. Palaeontol., 26: 1-144.

  • McNEILL J., BARRIE F.R., BUCK W.R., DEMOULIN V., GREUTER W., HAWKSWORTH D.L., HERENDEEN P.S., KNAPP S., MARHOLD K., PRADO J., PRUD’HOMME van REINE W.F., SMITH G.F., WIERSEMA J.H. & TURLAND N.J. (eds) 2012. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. [ http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php ]

  • MENENDEZ C.A. 1951. La flora mesozoica de la formacion Llantenes (Provincia Mendoza). Rev. Mus. Argent. Cienc. Bot., 2(3): 147-261.

  • METCALFE I., CROWLEY J.L., NICOLL R.S. & SCHMITZ M. 2015. High-precision U-Pb CATIMS calibration of Middle Permian to Lower Triassic sequences, mass extinction and extreme climate-change in eastern Australian Gondwana. Gondwana Res., 28: 61-81. DOI: 10.1016/j. gr.2014.09.002 [Crossref]

  • MEYEN S.V. 1984. Basic features of gymnosperm systematics and phylogeny as evidenced by the fossil record. Bot. Rev., 50: 1-111.

  • MOREL E.M., ARTABE A.E. & SPALLETTI L.A.

  • 2003. Triassic floras of Argentina: biostratigraphy, floristic events and comparison with other areas of Gondwana and Laurasia. Alcheringa, 27: 231-243. DOI: 10.1080/03115518.2003.10384472 [Crossref]

  • MORY A.J., HAIG D.W., McLOUGHLIN S. & HOCKING R.M. 2005. Geology of the northern Perth Basin, Western Australia - a field guide. Rec. Geol. Surv. W. Aust., 2005/9: 1-71.

  • MÜNSTER G.G. 1842. Ueber einige neue noch wenig bekannte Fossile Pflanzen, unter Mitwirkung des Professor Unger in Grätz. Beitr. Petrefacten- Kunde, 5(12): 103-110, plates III-IV.

  • NATHORST A.G. 1909. Über die Gattung Nilssonia Brongn: mit besonderer Berücksichtigung schwedischer Arten. Kungl. Svenska VetenskapsAkad. Handl., 43(12): 1-40.

  • NEINHUIS C. & BARTHLOTT W. 1997. Characterization and distribution of water-repellent, selfcleaning plant surfaces. Ann. Bot., 79: 667-677.

  • NEWTON E.T. & TEALL J.J.H. 1897. Notes on a collection of rocks and fossils from Franz Josef Land, made by the Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition during 1894-1896. Quart. J. Geol. Soc., 53: 477-519.

  • NEWTON E.T. & TEALL J.J.H. 1898. Additional notes on rocks and fossils from Franz Josef Land. Quart. J. Geol. Soc., 54: 646-652.

  • OLDHAM T. & MORRIS J. 1863. 1. The fossil flora of the Rajmahal series in the Rajmahal Hills. Mem. Geol. Surv. India Palaeont. Indica, (2)1(1): 1-52 + plates I-XXXV.

  • O’SULLIVAN T. 1977 (unpubl.). Geology of part of the north-eastern Callide Basin, east-central Queensland. Honours thesis, Department of Geology and Mineralogy, The University of Queensland, 40 pp., 46 figs, 3 maps.

  • OTTONE E.G. 2006. Plantas triásicas del Grupo Rincón Blanco, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina. Ameghiniana, 43: 477-486.

  • OTTONE E.G., AVELLANEDA D. & KOUKHARSKY M. 2011. Plantas triásicas y su relación con el volcanismo en la Formación Agua de la Zorra, provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Ameghiniana, 48: 177-188. [Crossref]

  • PANT D.D. 1987. The fossil history and phylogeny of the Cycadales. Geophytology, 17: 125-162.

  • PATTEMORE G.A. 2000. A new Early Jurassic pteridosperm fructification from Queensland. J. Afr. Earth Sc., 31: 187-193.

  • PATTEMORE G.A. 2016. The structure of umkomasiacean fructifications from the Triassic of Queensland. Acta Palaeobot., 56: 17-40. DOI: 10.1515/ acpa-2016-0001 [Crossref]

  • PATTEMORE G.A. & RIGBY J.F. 2005. Fructifications and foliage from the Mesozoic of southeast Queensland. Mem. Qd Mus., 50(2): 329-345.

  • PATTEMORE G.A., RIGBY J.F. & PLAYFORD G. 2014. Palissya: a global review and reassessment of Eastern Gondwanan material. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 210: 50-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo. 2014.08.002 [Crossref]

  • PATTEMORE G.A., RIGBY J.F. & PLAYFORD G. 2015a. Triassic-Jurassic pteridosperms of Australasia: speciation, diversity and decline. Boletín Geológico y Minero, 126: 689-722.

  • PATTEMORE G.A., RIGBY J.F. & PLAYFORD G. 2015b. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917. Acta Palaeobot., 55: 123-147. DOI: 10.1515/acpa-2015-0009 [Crossref]

  • PETRIELLA B. 1980. Sinopsis de las Corystospermaceae (Corystospermales, Pteridospermophyta) de Argentina. I. Hojas. Ameghiniana, 16: 81-102.

  • PETRIELLA B. 1981. Sistemática y vinculaciones de las Corystospermaceae H. Thomas. Ameghiniana, 18: 221-234.

  • PIGG K.B. 1990. Anatomically preserved Dicroidium foliage from the central Transantarctic Mountains. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 66: 129-145.

  • PIGG K.B. 1992. Evolution of isoetalean lycopsids. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 79: 589-612.

  • PIGG K.B. 2001. Isoetalean lycopsid evolution: from the Devonian to the present. Amer. Fern J., 91: 99-114.

  • PIGG K.B. & TAYLOR T.N. 1987. Anatomically preserved Dicroidium from the Transantarctic Mountains. Antarc. J. U.S., 22(5): 28-29.

  • PLAYFORD G. & RIGBY J.F. 1988. Some Lower Mesozoic and Lower Tertiary plant megafossil occurrences in the Ipswich area, southeast Queensland: 119-125. In: Hamilton L.H. (ed.), Field excursions handbook for the Ninth Australian Geological Convention, Brisbane 1988. Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division.

  • PLAYFORD G., RIGBY J.F. & ARCHIBALD D.C. 1982. A Middle Triassic flora from the Moolayember Formation, Bowen Basin, Queensland. Publ. Geol. Surv. Qd, 380: 1-52.

  • POLE M.S. & RAINE J.I. 1994. Triassic plant fossils from Pollock Road, Southland, New Zealand. Alcheringa, 18: 147-159. [Crossref]

  • POTT C. & McLOUGHLIN S. 2009. Bennettitalean foliage in the Rhaetian-Bajocian (latest Triassic- Middle Jurassic) floras of Scania, southern Sweden. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 158: 117-166. DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2009.08.004 [Crossref]

  • POTT C. & McLOUGHLIN S. 2011. The Rhaetian flora of Rögla, northern Scania, Sweden. Palaeontology, 54: 1025-1051. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01090.x [Crossref]

  • POTT C., KERP H. & KRINGS M. 2007a. Morphology and epidermal anatomy of Nilssonia (cycadalean foliage) from the Upper Triassic of Lunz (Lower Austria). Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 143(3-4): 197-217. DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.07.007 [Crossref]

  • POTT C., KRINGS M. & KERP H. 2007b. First record of Nilssoniopteris (Gymnospermophyta, Bennettitales) from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Lunz, lower Austria. Palaeontology, 50: 1299-1318. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00704.x [Crossref]

  • PURDY D.J. 2013. Esk Trough: 387-391. In: Jell P.A. (ed.), Geology of Queensland. Geological Survey of Queensland, Brisbane.

  • PURDY D.J. & CRANFIELD L.C. 2013. Ipswich Basin: 391-396. In: Jell P.A. (ed.), Geology of Queensland. Geological Survey of Queensland, Brisbane.

  • RANDS W.H. 1891. New discovery of coal near the Callide Creek, Port Curtis district. Publ. Geol. Surv. Qd, 80: 1-5 + 1 map.

  • RAVEN R.J., JELL P.A. & KNEZOUR R.A. 2015. Edwa maryae gen. et sp. nov. in the Norian Blackstone Formation of the Ipswich Basin - the first Triassic spider (Mygalomorphae) from Australia. Alcheringa, 39: 259-263. DOI: 10.1080/03115518.2015.993300 [Crossref]

  • REES P.M. 1993. Revised interpretations of Mesozoic palaeogeography and volcanic arc evolution in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region. Antarct. Sci., 5: 77-85.

  • REES P.M. & CLEAL C.J. 2004. Lower Jurassic floras from Hope Bay and Botany Bay, Antarctica. Spec. Pap. Palaeontol., 72: 5-90.

  • REID C.M., FORSYTH S.M., CLARKE M.J. & BACON C. 2014. The Parmeener Supergroup - late Carboniferous to Triassic: 363-384. In: Corbett K.D., Quilty P.G. & Calver C.R. (eds), Geological evolution of Tasmania. Spec. Publ. Geol. Soc. Aust., Tasm. Div., 24.

  • REID J.H. 1922. Geology of the Walloon-Rosewood coalfield. Publ. Geol. Surv. Qd, 272: 1-67.

  • RENAULT B. 1883. Cours de botanique fossile fait au Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle. Vol. 3. G. Masson, Paris.

  • RETALLACK G.J. 1975. The life and times of a Triassic lycopod. Alcheringa, 1: 3-29. [Crossref]

  • RETALLACK G.J. 1977. Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of eastern Australasia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. Alcheringa, 1: 247-278, microfiche frames G1-J17. [Crossref]

  • RETALLACK G.J. 1980a. Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic megafossil floras from the Sydney Basin: 384-430. In: Herbert C. & Helby R. (eds) A guide to the Sydney Basin. Bull. Geol. Surv. N.S.W., 26.

  • RETALLACK G.J. 1980b. Middle Triassic megafossil plants and trace fossils from Tank Gully, Canterbury, New Zealand. J. R. Soc. N.Z., 10: 31-63.

  • RETALLACK G.J. 1981. Middle Triassic megafossil plants from Long Gully, near Otematata, north Otago, New Zealand. J. R. Soc. N.Z., 11: 167-200.

  • RETALLACK G.J. 1983. Middle Triassic megafossil marine algae and land plants from near Benmore Dam, southern Canterbury, New Zealand. J. R. Soc. N.Z., 13: 129-154.

  • RETALLACK G.J. 1995. An Early Triassic fossil flora from Culvida Soak, Canning Basin, Western Australia. J. R. Soc. W. Aust., 78: 57-66.

  • RETALLACK G.J. 1997. Earliest Triassic origin of Isoetes and quillwort evolutionary radiation. J. Paleontol., 71: 500-521. [Crossref]

  • RETALLACK G.J., GOULD R.E. & RUNNEGAR B. 1977. Isotopic dating of a Middle Triassic megafossil flora from near Nymboida, northeastern New South Wales. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 101: 77-113.

  • RIGBY J.F. 1978. Jurassic plant fossils from the Walloon Coal Measures at Rosewood Consolidated Colliery. Qd Govt Min. J., 79(924): 526-529.

  • RITTERBUSH K.A., IBARRA Y., BOTTJER D.J., CORSETTI F.A., ROSAS S., WEST A.J., BERELSON W.M. & YAGER J.A. 2015. Marine ecological state-shifts following the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. Paleontol. Soc. Pap., 21: 121-136.

  • RÖPER M. 2005. Field trip C: lithographic limestones and plattenkalk deposits of the Solnhofen and Mörnsheim formations near Eichstätt and Solnhofen. Zitteliana, (B), 26: 71-85.

  • ROTHWELL G.W. & STOCKEY R.A. 2016. Phylogenetic diversification of Early Cretaceous seed plants: the compound seed cone of Doylea tetrahedrasperma. Amer. J. Bot., 103: 923-937. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1600030 [Crossref]

  • ROUX J.P. 2009. Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighbouring islands. Strelitzia, 23: 1-296.

  • ROYER D.L. 2001. Stomatal density and stomatal index as indicators of paleoatmospheric CO2 concentration. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 114: 1-28.

  • RUHL M., BONIS N.R., REICHART G.-J., DAMSTÉ J.S.S. & KÜRSCHNER W.M. 2011. Atmospheric carbon injection linked to end-Triassic mass extinction. Science, 333(6041): 430-434. DOI: 10.1126/ science.1204255 [Crossref]

  • SAMYLINA V.A. & KIRITCHKOVA A.I. 1991. Rod Czekanowskia. Nauka, St. Petersburg [in Russian].

  • SAMYLINA V.A. & KIRITCHKOVA A.I. 1993. The genus Czekanowskia Heer: principles of systematics, range in space and time. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 79: 271-284.

  • SCHIMPER W.P. 1874. Traité de paléontologie végétale, 3. Baillière et fils, Paris.

  • SCHNEIDER C.A., RASBAND W.S. & ELICEIRI K.W. 2012. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature Meth., 9: 671-675.

  • SCHOPF J.M. 1973. The contrasting plant assemblages from Permian and Triassic deposits in southern continents. Mem. Canad. Soc. Petrol. Geol., 2: 379-397.

  • SETON M., MÜLLER R.D., ZAHIROVIC S., GAINA C., TORSVIK T., SHEPHARD G., TALSMA A., GURNIS M., TURNER M., MAUS S. & CHANDLER M. 2012. Global continental and ocean basin reconstructions since 200 ma. Earth-Sci. Rev., 113: 212-270. DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2012.03.002 [Crossref]

  • SEWARD A.C. 1894. The Wealden flora. I. Thallophyta- Pteridophyta. Catalogue of the Mesozoic plants in the Department of Geology, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), 1: 1-179.

  • SEWARD A.C. 1904. On a collection of Jurassic plants from Victoria. Rec. Geol. Surv. Victoria, 1(3): 155-211.

  • SEWARD A.C. 1908. On a collection of fossil plants from South Africa. Quart. J. Geol. Soc., 64: 83-108.

  • SEWARD A.C. 1910. Fossil Plants. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press, London.

  • SEWARD A.C. 1917. Fossil Plants. Vol. 3. Pteridospermeae, Cycadofilices, Cordaitales, Cycadophyta. Cambridge University Press, London.

  • SEWARD A.C. 1919. Fossil Plants. Vol. 4. Ginkgoales, Coniferales, Gnetales. Cambridge University Press, London.

  • SHI GONGLE, LESLIE A.B., HERENDEEN P.S., HERRERA F., ICHINNOROV N., TAKAHASHI M., KNOPF P. & CRANE P.R. 2016. Early Cretaceous Umkomasia from Mongolia: implications for homology of corystosperm cupules. New Phytol., 210: 1418-1429. DOI: 10.1111/nph.13871 [Crossref]

  • SHIRLEY J. 1898. Additions to the fossil flora of Queensland. Publ. Geol. Surv. Qd, 128: 1-25.

  • SLATER S.M. & WELLMAN C.H. 2015. A quantitative comparison of dispersed spore/pollen and plant megafossil assemblages from a Middle Jurassic plant bed from Yorkshire, UK. Paleobiology, 41: 640-660. DOI: 10.1017/pab.2015.27 [Crossref]

  • SMELROR M. 1986. Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous palynomorph assemblages from Cape Flora, Franz Josef Land, Arctic, USSR. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 66: 107-119.

  • SNARS F. 1997. German settlement in the Rosewood Scrub: a pictorial history. Rosewood Scrub Historical Society, Marburg, Queensland.

  • SOLHEIM A., GUSTAVSEN F., MUSATOV E., DYPVIK H. & BJÆRKE T. 1998. The shallow subsurface geology of the northeastern Barents Sea: 24-49. In: Solheim A., Musatov E. & Heintz N. (eds), Geological aspects of Franz Josef Land and the northernmost Barents Sea - the northern Barents Sea geotraverse. Norsk Polarinstitutt, 151.

  • STANLEY T.D. & ROSS E.M. 1983. Flora of southeastern Queensland. Vol. 1. Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane.

  • STERNBERG G.K. 1838. Versuch einer geognostischbotanischen Darstellung der Flora der Vorwelt. Deutschen Museum, Leipzig, 5-8: 1-220.

  • STIPANICIC P.N., HERBST R. & BONETTI M.I.R. 1996. Floras triásicas: 127-184. In: Stipanicic P.N. & Hünicken M.A. (eds), Revisión y actualización de la obra paleobotánica de Kurtz en la República Argentina. Actas Acad. Nac. Ci. Córdoba, 11.

  • STOREY B.C., VAUGHAN A.P.M. & MILLAR I.L. 1996. Geodynamic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula during Mesozoic times and its bearing on Weddell Sea history. Spec. Publ., Geol. Soc. London, 108: 87-103.

  • STRZELECKI P.E. 1845. Physical description of New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land. Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, London.

  • SZAJNOCHA L. 1888. Über fossile Pflanzenreste aus Cacheuta in der Argentinischen Republik. Sitzungsber. Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., 97: 219-245.

  • TAYLOR E.L., BOUCHER L.D. & TAYLOR T. N. 1992. Dicroidium from Mount Fella, central Transantarctic Mountains. Antarc. J. U.S., 27(5): 2-3.

  • TAYLOR E.L., TAYLOR T.N. & KRINGS M. 2009. Paleobotany: the biology and evolution of fossil plants, 2nd edition. Elsevier.

  • TENISON-WOODS J.E. 1882. The Hawkesbury Sandstone. J. Proc. R. Soc. N.S.W., 16: 53-106.

  • TENISON-WOODS J.E. 1883. On various deposits of fossil plants in Queensland. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 7: 95-98.

  • TENISON-WOODS J.E. 1884. On the fossil flora of the coal deposits of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 8: 37-180.

  • THE BRISBANE COURIER. 1871. Coal-mining in West Moreton. Newspaper article, 19th October, 26(4383): 1-4. [ http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1318045 ]

  • THE BRISBANE COURIER. 1872. Telegraphic. Newspaper article, 31st August, 27(4665): 1-8. [ http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1294910 ]

  • THOMAS H.H. 1933. On some pteridospermous plants from the Mesozoic rocks of South Africa. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. (B), 222(489): 193-265.

  • THORN V. 2001. Vegetation communities of a high palaeolatitude Middle Jurassic forest in New Zealand. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoecol., 168: 273-289.

  • TIDWELL W.D., KIM J.H. & KIMURA T. 1987. Mid- Mesozoic leaves from near Ida Bay, southern Tasmania, Australia. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm., 121: 159-170.

  • TORSVIK T.H. & COCKS L.R.M. 2013. Gondwana from top to base in space and time. Gondwana Res., 24: 999-1030. [Crossref]

  • TOTTERDELL J.M., MOLONEY J., KORSCH R.J. & KRASSAY A.A. 2009. Sequence stratigraphy of the Bowen-Gunnedah and Surat Basins in New South Wales. Aust. J. Earth Sci., 56: 433-459.

  • TOWNROW J.A. 1957. On Dicroidium, probably a pteridospermous leaf, and other leaves now removed from this genus. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr., 60: 21-56.

  • TOWNROW J.A. 1962. Note on the type material of Xylopteris elongata (Carruthers) Frenguelli. Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 72(10): 123-127.

  • TOWNROW J.A. 1966. On Dicroidium odontopteroides and D. obtusifolium in Tasmania: 129-136. In: Symposium on floristics and stratigraphy of Gondwanaland. Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, India.

  • TOWNROW J.A. 1967a. Brachyphyllum crassum complex of fossil conifers. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm., 101: 149-174.

  • TOWNROW J.A. 1967b. Fossil plants from Allan and Carapace Nunataks, and from the upper Mill and Shackleton Glaciers, Antarctica. N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys., 10: 456-473.

  • TRONCOSO A. & HERBST R. 2007. Cuatro flórulas del triásico superior del centro sur de Chile (Cerro Ranguilí, Cerro Quilvo, Cerro Gupo y Río Quillén). Ameghiniana, 44: 661-672.

  • Van KONIJNENBURG-van CITTERT J.H.A. 1978. Osmundaceous spores in situ from the Jurassic of Yorkshire, England. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 26: 125-141.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1915. Mesozoic floras of Queensland. Part 1. The flora of the Ipswich and Walloon series. (a.) Introduction. (b.) Equisetales. Publ. Geol. Surv. Qd, 252: 1-51.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1917a. Mesozoic floras of Queensland. Part 1 (continued), the flora of the Ipswich and Walloon series. (c.) Filicales, etc. Publ. Geol. Surv. Qd, 257: 1-67.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1917b. Mesozoic floras of Queensland. Part 1 (concluded): The flora of the Ipswich and Walloon series. (d.) Ginkgoales, (e.) Cycadophyta, (f.) Coniferales. Publ. Geol. Surv. Qd, 259: 1-49.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1919a. Mesozoic floras of Queensland. Parts 3 and 4. The floras of the Burrum and Styx River series. Publ. Geol. Surv. Qd, 263: 1-77.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1919b. Queensland fossil floras. Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 31: 1-20.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1924a. On fossil plants from Bellevue, near Esk. Mem. Qd Mus., 8(1): 77-92.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1924b. Notes on some Tasmanian Mesozoic plants. Part I. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm., 1924: 73-87.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1925. Fossil plants from the Narrabeen Stage of the Hawkesbury Series. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 50: 214-224.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1928. Fossil plants from the Esk district, Queensland. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 53: 458-468.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1932. Fossil plants from Mt. Piddington and Clarence Siding. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 57: 123-126.

  • WALKOM A.B. 1944. Fossil plants from Gingin. J. R. Soc. W. Aust., 28: 201-207.

  • WANG QI. 2008. (1826) Proposal to conserve the name Pleuromeia with that spelling (fossil Lycopsida). Taxon, 57: 659-660. [Crossref]

  • WEBB J.A. 1980 (unpubl.). Aspects of the palaeontology of Triassic continental sediments in south-east Queensland. PhD thesis, Department of Geology and Mineralogy, The University of Queensland, 1-2: 401 pp., 85 text figures, 15 tables, 33 plates.

  • WHITE M.E. 1963 (unpubl.). Report on 1962 plant fossil collections from the Great Artesian Basin. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics Record, 1963/35: 4 pp.

  • WHITE M.E. 1964 (unpubl.). 1963 plant fossil collections from Hughenden area, Great Artesian Basin. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics Record, 1964/64: 11 pp.

  • WHITE M.E. 1969 (unpubl.). Report on the 1968 collection of plant fossils from Surat and Clarence- Moreton Basins, Queensland. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics Record, 1969/57: 16 pp.

  • WHITE M.E. 1981. Cylomeia undulata (Burges) gen. et comb. nov., a lycopod of the Early Triassic strata of New South Wales. Rec. Aust. Mus., 33: 723-734. [Crossref]

  • WHITMORE R.L. 1981. Coal in Queensland: the first fifty years. University of Queensland Press, Brisbane.

  • WHITMORE R.L. 1985. Coal in Queensland: the late nineteenth century, 1875 to 1900. University of Queensland Press, Brisbane.

  • YEATS T.H. & ROSE J.K.C. 2013. The formation and function of plant cuticles. Plant Physiology, 163: 5-20.

  • ZAMUNER A.B., ZAVATTIERI A.M., ARTABE A.E. & MOREL E.M. 2001. Paleobotánica: 143-184. In: Artabe A.E., Morel E.M. & Zamuner A.B. (eds), El Sistema Triásico en la Argentina. Fundación Museo de La Plata “Francisco Pascasio Moreno”, La Plata, Argentina.

  • ZHOU Z. 1997. Mesozoic ginkgoalean megafossils: a systematic review: 183-206. In: Hori T., Ridge R.W., Tulecke W., de Tredici P., Tremouillaux-Guiller J. & Tobe H. (eds), Ginkgo biloba, a global treasure, from biology to medicine. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo.

  • ZIJLSTRA G. 2014. Important changes in the rules of nomenclature, especially those relevant for palaeobotanists. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 207: 1-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2014.04.003 [Crossref]

About the article

Received: 2016-05-27

Accepted: 2016-09-27

Published Online: 2016-12-13

Published in Print: 2016-12-01


Citation Information: Acta Palaeobotanica, ISSN (Online) 2082-0259, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/acpa-2016-0008. Export Citation

© by Gary A. Pattemore. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in