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Acta Pharmaceutica

The Journal of Croatian Pharmaceutical Society

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.288
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.600

CiteScore 2016: 1.55

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Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.854

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Volume 65, Issue 4


Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence

Michael Bergin / Ian Norman
  • Kings College London, Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, London, United Kingdom
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Michelle Foley / Richard Harris / Anna Rapca / Eileen Rich
  • Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Marie-Claire Van Hout
Published Online: 2015-12-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/acph-2015-0040


Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O’Malley’s framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.

Keywords: codeine; over the counter; misuse; dependence; policy


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About the article

Accepted: 2015-10-14

Published Online: 2015-12-17

Published in Print: 2015-12-01

Citation Information: Acta Pharmaceutica, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 351–364, ISSN (Online) 1846-9558, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/acph-2015-0040.

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© by Marie-Claire Van Hout. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

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