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Archives of Foundry Engineering

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Size of Non-Metallic Inclusions in High-Grade Medium Carbon Steel

T. Lipiński
  • Corresponding author
  • University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, The Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department of Materials and Machines Technology, St: Oczapowskiego 11, 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ A. Wach
  • University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, The Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department of Materials and Machines Technology, St: Oczapowskiego 11, 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-12-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/afe-2014-0086


Non-metallic inclusions found in steel can affect its performance characteristics. Their impact depends not only on their quality, but also, among others, on their size and distribution in the steel volume. The literature mainly describes the results of tests on hard steels, particularly bearing steels. The amount of non-metallic inclusions found in steel with a medium carbon content melted under industrial conditions is rarely presented in the literature. The tested steel was melted in an electric arc furnace and then desulfurized and argonrefined. Seven typical industrial melts were analyzed, in which ca. 75% secondary raw materials were used. The amount of non-metallic inclusions was determined by optical and extraction methods. The test results are presented using stereometric indices. Inclusions are characterized by measuring ranges. The chemical composition of steel and contents of inclusions in every melts are presented. The results are shown in graphical form. The presented analysis of the tests results on the amount and size of non-metallic inclusions can be used to assess them operational strength and durability of steel melted and refined in the desulfurization and argon refining processes.

Keywords : Quality management; Environment protection; High-grade steel; Steel; Non-metallic inclusions; Quantitative metallography


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About the article

Received: 2014-06-16

Revised: 2014-07-15

Published Online: 2014-12-17

Published in Print: 2014-12-01

Citation Information: Archives of Foundry Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 55–60, ISSN (Online) 2299-2944, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/afe-2014-0086.

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© by T. Lipiński. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

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