Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae

2 Issues per year

Open Access
Online
ISSN
0520-7371
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Effect of 3-Months Home-Based Exercise Program on Changes of Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults Living in Old People’s Home

Dagmar Nemček
  • Department of Sport Educology and Sport Humanities, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Alexander Simon
  • Department of Sport Educology and Sport Humanities, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-05-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/afepuc-2016-0002

Summary

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of regular participation in home-based exercise programme on cognitive functioning changes in institutionalised older adults. Two groups of participants were recruited for the study: experimental (n = 17) in mean age 76 ± 5.6 years, who participated in home-based exercise program and control (n = 14) in mean age 80 ± 4.2 years. The standardised Stroop Color-Word Test-Victoria version (VST) was used to measure the level of cognitive functions. Group differences were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples and for differences between pre-measurements and post-measurements on experimental and control group we used non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed - Rank Test. The level of significance was α < 0.05. Application of 3-months home-based exercise program significantly improved the cognitive functions only in one (Word condition; p<0.01) from three VST conditions in institutionalised older adults. That’s why we recommend longer participation in home-based exercise program, at least 6- months, with combination of various types of cognitive interventions, like concepts of cognitive training, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in older adults living in old peoples’ homes.

Keywords : institutionalised seniors; exercise; Stroop Color-Word Test-Victoria; cognitive functions

References

  • 1. ARCOVERDE, C., A. DESLANDES, H. MORAES, C. ALMEIDA, N.B. ARAUJO, P.E. VASQUES et al., 2014. Treadmill training as an augmentation treatment for Alzheimer's disease: a pilot randomized controlled study. In: Arquivos de Neuropsiquiatria, 72(3), pp. 190-196.Google Scholar

  • 2. BAKER, L.D., L.L. FRANK, K. FOSTER-SCHUBERT, P.S. GREEN, C.W. WILKINSON, A. McTIERNAN et al., 2010. Effects of aerobic exercise on mild cognitive impairment: a controlled trial. In: Archives of Neurology, 67(1), pp. 71-79.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 3. BALGA, T. & M. CHROMÍK, 2014. Úroveň kognitívnych schopností detí s telesným postihnutím strednej odbornej školy v Bratislave. In: Sports, Physical Activity and Health 2014. Slovak Olympic Committee, Bratislava, pp. 280-287. ISBN 978-80-89075-44-7.Google Scholar

  • 4. BIELAK, A. A., 2010. How can we not “lose it” if we still don’t understand how to “use it”? Unanswered questions about the influence of activity participation on cognitive performance in older age--a mini-review. In: Gerontology, 56(5), pp. 507-519.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5. CLARK, R., M. FREEDBERG, E. HAZELTINE & M.W. VOSS., 2015. Are there Age- Related Differences in the Ability to Learn Configural Responses? In: Plos One Journal, 10(8), pp. 1-16.Google Scholar

  • 6. COLCOMBE, S.J., K.I. ERICKSON, P.E. SCALF et al., 2006. Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. In: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 61(11), pp. 1166-1170.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 7. ERICKSON, K.I., M.W. VOSS, R.S. PRAKASH et al., 2011. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. In: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108(7), pp. 3017-3022.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 8. ESKES, G.A., S. LONGMAN, A.D. BROWN, C.A. McMORRIS, K.D. LANGDON, D.B. HOGAN & M. POULIN, 2010. Contribution of physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and cognitive stimulation to cognitive function in postmenopausal women. In: Front Aging Neurosci, 2, pp. 1-7.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 9. FRATIGLIONI, L., S. PILLARD-BORG & B. WINBLAD, 2004. An active and socially integrated life-style in late life might protect against dementia. In: Lancet Neurology, 3(6), pp. 343-353.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10. GIBSON, H.J. & J.F. SINGLETON, 2012. Leisure and Aging. Theory and Practice. United States: Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-9463-4.Google Scholar

  • 11. GORELICK, P.B., R.L. SACCO, D.B. SMITH et al., 1999. Prevention of a first stroke: a review of guidelines and a multidisciplinary consensus statement from the national stroke association. In: J Am Med Assoc, 281(12), pp. 1112-1120.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 12. JOUBERT, S., S.M. BRAMBATI, J. ANSADO, E.J. BARBEAU, O. FELICIAN, M. DIDIC et al., 2010. The cognitive and neural expression of semantic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s disease. In: Neuropsychologia, 48, pp. 978-988.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13. KIM, M., CH. CHO, CH. LEE & M. KOHZUKI, 2015. The Effect of Exercise, Cognitive Intervention and Combine Exercise and Cognitive Interventions in Older Adults with cognitive impairments and Alzheimer’s Disease: A literature review. In: Asian Journal of Human Services, 8, pp. 131-151.Google Scholar

  • 14. KISVETROVÁ, H., P. KURKOVÁ, B. ŠVEJDÍKOVÁ & R. POPELKOVÁ, 2013. Používání sluchadla jako aspekt kvality života seniorské populace. In: Medzinárodní konference Kvalita života 2013. Liberec : Technical Univesity, s. 53-62.Google Scholar

  • 15. KRAČEK, S., P. PAČESOVÁ, P. ŠMELA, M. ŠTEFANOVSKÝ & D. ČIERNA, 2015. Závislosť úrovne vybraných kognitívnych schopností v rankingu v džude u detí od 10 do 15 rokov. In: Od výskumu k praxi v športe. Zborník vedeckých prác. STU, Bratislava, s. [7 s.] [CD-ROM], ISBN 978-80-227-4485-0.Google Scholar

  • 16. KRAČEK, S., P. PAČESOVÁ & V. OLIVA, 2015. Porovnanie úrovne vybraných kognitívnych schopností pravidelne športujúcej a nešportujúcej mužskej populácie. In: Vedecké práce KSS a P 2015. Vedecký zborník. Univerzita sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave, Trnava, s. 140-146 [CD-ROM]. ISBN 978-80-8105-733-5.Google Scholar

  • 17. LAURIN, D., R. VERREAULT, J. LINDSAY, K. MacPHERSON & K. ROCKWOOD, 2001. Physical activity and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly persons. In: Arch Neurol, 58(3), pp. 498-504. Google Scholar

  • 18. MIDDLETON, L.E., D.E. BARNES, L. LUI & K. YAFFE, 2010. Physical activity over the life course and its association with cognitive performance and impairment in old age. In: J Am Geriatr Soc, 58(7), pp. 1322-1326.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19. MORONI, C. & S. BAYARD, 2009. Inhibitory process: What evolution after the age of 50? In: Psychologie & NeuroPsychiatrie du Vieillissement, 7, pp. 121-129.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 20. NEMČEK, D., 2011. Exercise as a part of seniors’ life style. In: Healthy active life style and physical education. END, Topoľčianky, pp. 49-57. ISBN 978-80-89324-07-1.Google Scholar

  • 21. NEMČEK, D. & J. LABUDOVÁ, 2011. Importance of quality of life factors related to health and exercise in seniors. In: Exercise and quality of life. University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, pp. 87-92. ISBN 978-86-80231-71-6.Google Scholar

  • 22. NEMČEK, D., J. LABUDOVÁ & S. KRAČEK, 2012. Life satisfaction of sedentary and physically active population. In: Acta Facultatis Educationis physicae Universitatis Comenianae. Comenius University, Bratislava, pp. 61-71. ISBN 978-80-223-3229-3.Google Scholar

  • 23. NEMČEK, D., J. LABUDOVÁ, T. JAVANAINEN-LEVONEN & J. WITTMANNOVÁ, 2014. Quality of life between active population and population with sedentary behaviour with different health status. In: EUCAPA European Congress of Adapted Physical Activity. Universidad politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, pp. 1. ISBN 978-84-941365-5-9.Google Scholar

  • 24. NEMČEK, D., J. WITTMANNOVÁ & M. MELICHAROVÁ, 2014. Quality of life among seniors living in nursing homes in bruntal region: The impact of physical activities. In: Sports, Physical Activity and Health 2014. Slovak Olympic Committee, Bratislava, pp. 65-66. ISBN 978-80-89075-43-0.Google Scholar

  • 25. ROLLAND, Y., F. PILLARD, A. KLAPOUSZCZAK, E. REYNISH, D. THOMAS, S. ANDRIEU et al., 2007. Exercise program for nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease: a 1-year randomized, controlled trial. In: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(2), pp. 158-165.Google Scholar

  • 26. RUBIAL-ALVAREZ, S., M.C. MACHADO, E. SINTAS et al., 2007. A preliminary study of the Mini Mental State Examination in a Spanish child population. J Child Neurol, 22, pp. 1269-1273.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 27. SALTHOUSE, T., 2011. Effects of Age on Time-Dependent Cognitive Change. Psychol Sci, 22(5), pp. 682-688.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 28. SALTHOUSE, T. 2009. When does age-related cognitive decline begin? Neurobiol Aging, 30, pp. 507-514.Google Scholar

  • 29. SCHAIE, K. W., 2005. Developmental Influences on Adult Intelligence: The Seattle Longitudinal Study. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

  • 30. SCHNEIDER, W., 2002. Memory development in childhood. In: GOSWAMI, U. Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development. Malden: Blackwell Pub. pp. 236-256.Google Scholar

  • 31. SHOJI, M., K. FUKUSHIMA, M. WAKAYAMA et al., 2002. Intellectual faculties in patients with Alzheimer’s disease regress to the level of a 4-5 year old child. In: Ger Gerontol Int, 2, pp. 143-147.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 32. SPREEN, O. & E. STRAUSS, 1998. A compendium of neuropsychological tests (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • 33. STRAUSS, E., E.M.S. SHERMAN & O. SPREEN, 2006. A compendium of neuropsychological tests. Administration, norms, and commentary (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • 34. SUNG, H.C., S.M. CHANG, W.L. LEE & M.S. LEE, 2006. The effects of group music with movement intervention on agitated behaviours of institutionalized elders with dementia in Taiwan. In: Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 14(2), pp. 113-119.Google Scholar

  • 35. SUZUKI, T., H. SHIMADA, H. MAKIZAKO, T. DOI, D. YOSHIDA, K. TSUTSUMIMOTO et al., 2012. Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. In: BMC Neurology, 12(128), pp. 1-9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 36. THURM, F., A. SCHARPF, N. LIEBERMANN, S. KOLASSA, T. ELBERT, D. LÜCHTENBERG et al., 2011. Improvement of cognitive function after physical movement training in institutionalized very frail older adults with dementia. In: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(4), pp. 197-208.Google Scholar

  • 37. TROYER, A. K., L. LEACH & E. STRAUSS, 2006. Aging and response inhibition: Normative data for the Victoria Stroop Test. In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 13, pp. 20-35.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 38. TSANTALI, E, D. ECONOMIDIS, S. RIGOPOULOU et al., 2012. Comparison of cognitive performance of Mild Cognitive Impairment and demented patients with that of children and adults. In: Ger Gerontol Int, 12(2), pp. 336-344.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 39. VITAL, T.M., S.S. HERNÁNDEZ SALMA, R.V. PEDROSO, C.V.L. TEIXERIA, M. GARUFFI, A.M. STEIN et al., 2012. Effects of weight training on cognitive functions in elderly with alzheimer’s disease. In: Dementia e Neuropsychologia, 6(4), pp. 253-259.Google Scholar

  • 40. VOSS, M.W., L.S. NAGAMATSU, T. LIU-AMBROSE & A.F. KRAMER, 2011. Exercise, brain, and cognition across the life span. In: J Appl Physiol, 111(5), pp. 1505-1513. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 41. VREUGDENHIL, A., J. CANNELL, A. DAVIES & G. RAZAY, 2011. A communitybased exercise programme to improve functional ability in people with Alzheimer's disease: a randomized controlled trial. In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 26(1), pp. 12-19.Google Scholar

  • 42. WEUVE, J., J.H. KANG, J.E. MANSON, M.M.B. BRETELER, J.H. WARE & F. GRODSTEIN, 2004. Physical activity including walking, and cognitive function in older women. In: Journal of the American Medical Association, 292, pp. 1454-1461.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 43. YÁGÜEZ, L., K.N. SHAW, R. MORRIS & D. MATTHEWS, 2011. The effects on cognitive functions of a movement-based intervention in patients with Alzheimer's type dementia: a pilot study. In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(2), pp. 173-181.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2016-05-18

Published in Print: 2016-05-01


Citation Information: Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae, ISSN (Online) 0520-7371, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/afepuc-2016-0002.

Export Citation

© 2016. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in