Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis

The Journal of Faculty of Medicine in Nis

4 Issues per year


Cite Score 2016: 0.25

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.109
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.124

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2217-2521
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Oxidative Stress, Skin Aging and Antioxidant Therapy / Oksidacioni Stres, Starenje Kože I Antioksidaciona Terapija

Dragana Stojiljković / Dušica Pavlović / Ivana Arsić
Published Online: 2014-12-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/afmnai-2014-0026

Summary

Skin aging is a dynamic process that occurs due to chronological and photo-aging caused by the influence of external factors, especially ultraviolet-UV radiation. Cumulative oxidative stress, formation of free radicals and their adverse effects on biological systems in the skin cells is a common mechanism of both skin aging processes. The formed reactive oxygen species-ROS can lead to the oxidation of cell`s building molecules. Lipid peroxidation, membrane protein damage and DNA mutation may lead to many structural, functional and aesthetic changes in the skin and can also initiate development of many diseases.

One of the skin defense mechanisms is antioxidant defense where enzymes and other antioxidant substances react directly with ROS, preventing them from reaching their biological target. Antioxidant substances have the ability to bind free radicals, caused by oxidative stress, and may have significance in prevention and/or therapy of various skin diseases, as well as in slowing the skin aging process. Topical application of antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, coenzyme Q10 and polyphenolic compounds may provide the strengthening of the skin endogenous protection system and protection from harmful effects of ROS and oxidative damage to the skin.

This article outlines the impact of oxidative stress on the chronological and photo- aging, its mechanism of action, the changes that occur on/in the skin during the aging process. Substances with antioxidant characteristics, which can be used in the prevention of chronological and/or treatment of photo-aging of the skin are shown.

Sažetak

Starenje kože je dinamičan proces koji se dešava usled hronološkog starenja i foto-starenja izazvanog izlaganjem delovanju faktora spoljašnje sredine, pre svega UV (eng. ultraviolet) zračenja. Kumulativni oksidacioni stres, formiranje slobodnih radikala i njihov nepovoljan uticaj na biološke sisteme u ćelijama kože, predstavljju čest i zajednički mehanizam oba procesa starenja kože. Formirane reaktivne kiseonične vrste (eng. reactive oxygen species-ROS) mogu dovesti do oksidacije gradivnih molekula ćelija. Peroksidacija lipida, oštećenje membranskih proteina i DNK mutacije mogu dovesti do pojave strukturnih, funkcionalnih, kao i estetskih promena na koži, a takođe mogu pokrenuti razvoj mnogih bolesti.

Jedan od odbrambenih mehanizama kože je antioksidaciona odbrana, gde enzimi i druge antioksidacione supstance direktno reaguju sa ROS-om, sprečavajući ih da dopru do bioloških meta u koži. Antioksidacione supstance imaju sposobnost da vežu slobodne radikale nastale usled oksidacionog stresa, pa mogu biti značajne u prevenciji i/ili terapiji mnogih bolesti kože, kao i u usporavanju procesa starenja kože. Lokalna aplikacija antioksidanasa, kao što su vitamin E i C, koenzim Q10 i polifenolna jedinjenja, može da omogući jačanje endogenog zaštitnog sistema kože i predstavlja jedan od načina zaštite kože od štetnih efekata ROS-a i oksidacionog oštećenja kože u procesu starenja kože.

U ovom radu je prikazan uticaj oksidacionog stresa na hronološko i foto-starenje kože, mehanizam njegovog delovanja, promene koje nastaju na/u koži u toku procesa starenja. Dat je prikaz supstanci sa antioksidacionim delovanjem koje mogu da se koriste u prevenciji hronološkog i/ili tretmanu foto-starenja kože.

Keywords: oxidative stress; chronological and photo-skin aging; topical antioxidants

Ključne reči: oksidacioni stres; hronološko i foto-starenje kože; topikalni antioksidansi

References

  • 1. Rabe JH, Mamelak AJ, McElgunn PJet al. Photoaging: mechanisms and repair. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55:1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2005.05.010CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 2. Peres PS, Terra VA, Guarnier FA et al. Photoaging and chronological aging profile: Understanding oxidation of the skin. J Photochem Photobiol B 2011;103:93-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.01.019Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3. Kligman LH. Photoaging. Manifestations, prevention, and treatment. Clin Geriatr Med 1989;5:235-251.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 4. Kligman LH. The hairless mouse and photoaging. Photochem Photobiol 1991;54:1109-1118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1991.tb02134.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5. Rattan SI. Theories of biological aging: genes, proteins, and free radicals. Free Radic Res 2006; 40:1230-1238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715760600911303CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6. Kohen R. Skin antioxidants: their role in aging and in oxidative stress-new approaches for their evaluation. Biomed Pharmacother 1999;53:181-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0753-3322(99)80087-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 7. Stadtman ER. Protein oxidation and aging. Free Radic Res 2006;40:1250-1258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715760600918142CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 8. Shindo Y, Witt E, Packer L. Antioxidant defense mechanisms in murine epidermis and dermis and their responses to ultraviolet light. J Invest Dermatol 1993; 100:260-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12469048CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 9. Miyachi Y. Photoaging from an oxidative standpoint. J Dermatol Sci 1995;9:79-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0923-1811(94)00363-JCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10. Jurkiewicz BA, Buettner GR. Ultraviolet light-induced free radical formation in skin: an electron paramagnetic resonance study. Photochem Photobiol 1994;59:1-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1994.tb04993.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 11. Moysan A, Marquis I, Gaboriau F et al. Ultraviolet A-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in cultured human skin fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol 1993;100:692-698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12472352CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 12. Yue Y, Zhou H, Liu G et al. The advantages of a novel CoQ10 delivery system in skin photo-protection. Int J Pharm 2010;392:57-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.03.032CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13. Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Wlaschek M, Brenneisen P et al. UV-induced reactive oxygen species in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Biol Chem 1997;378: 1247 -1257.Google Scholar

  • 14. El-Domyati M, Attia S, Saleh F et al. Intrinsic aging vs. photoaging: a comparative histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin. Exp Dermatol 2002;11:398-405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0625.2002.110502.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 15. Chidambaram U, Pachamuthu V, Natarajan S et al. In vitro evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of Codariocalyx motorius root extract. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2013;6:188-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60021-8CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 16. Gasca CA, Cabezas FA, Torras L et al. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract and purified fractions of cadillo (Pavonia sepioides). Free radicals and Antioxidants 2013; 3: s55-s61.Google Scholar

  • 17. Kohen R, Gati I. Skin low molecular weight antioxidants and their role in aging and in oxidative stress. Toxicology 2000;148:149-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(00)00206-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 18. Jenkins G. Molecular mechanisms of skin ageing. Mech Ageing Dev 2002; 123:801-810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0047-6374(01)00425-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19. Merker K, Sitte N, Grune T. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated protein oxidation in young and old human MRC-5 fibroblasts. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000;375:50-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1999.1657Google Scholar

  • 20. Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D et al. Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1994;102:122-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12371744CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21. Vuleta G, Savić S. The rationale for use of vitamins and minerals in cosmetic products. Arh pharm 2009; 59: 212-225 (in Serbian).Google Scholar

  • 22. Baumann L. Skin aging and its treatment. J Pathol 2007; 2011:241-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.2098CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 23. Manela-Azulay M, Bagatin E. Cosmeceuticals vitamins. Clin Dermatol 2009;27:469-474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2009.05.010CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 24. Vuleta G, Vasiljević D. Vitamins in cosmetic products. Arh pharm 2001; 51:439-450 (in Serbian).Google Scholar

  • 25. Zussman J, Ahdout J, Kim J. Vitamins and photoaging: do scientific data support their use? J Am Acad Dermatol 2010;63:507-525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2009.07.037Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 26. Chow CK. Vitamin E and oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 1991;11:215-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(91)90174-2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 27. Nachbar F, Korting HC. The role of vitamin E in normal and damaged skin. J Mol Med (Berl) 1995;73:7-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00203614CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 28. Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S et al. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Br J Dermatol 1992;127:247-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1992.tb00122.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 29. Humbert PG, Haftek M, Creidi P et al. Topical ascorbic acid on photoaged skin. Clinical, topographical and ultrastructural evaluation: double-blind study vs. placebo. Exp Dermatol 2003;12:237-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0625.2003.00008.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 30. Rozman B, Gasperlin M. Stability of vitamins C and E in topical microemulsions for combined antioxidant therapy. Drug Deliv 2007;14:235-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717540601067786CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 31. Eberlein-König B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:45-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(98)70537-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 32. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-874. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mjd.2003.425CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 33. Maia Campos PM, Gianeti MD, Kanashiro A et al. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective effects of an association of bioflavonoids with liposoluble vitamins. Photochem Photobiol 2006;82:683-688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1562/2005-10-14-RA-715CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 34. Murray JC, Burch JA, Streilein RD et al. A topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human skin against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008;59:418-425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2008.05.004CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 35. Thiele JJ, Hsieh SN, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S. Vitamin E: critical review of its current use in cosmetic and clinical dermatology. Dermatol Surg 2005;31:805-813; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2005.31724CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 36. Burke K: Cosmeceuticals, Nutritional antioxidants, Edited by Zoe Diana Draclos 2005; 18:125-131.Google Scholar

  • 37. Almeida IF, Valentão P, Andrade PB et al. In vivo skin irritation potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) leaf extract, a putative natural antioxidant for topical application. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;103:461-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00301.xWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 38. Afaq F, Mukhtar H. Botanical antioxidants in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Exp Dermatol 2006;15:678-84. Review. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2006.00466.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 39. Do QD, Artik EA, Phuong Lan TN et al. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoids content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatic. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2014;22:296-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2013.11.001CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 40. Tuominen A. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies. Phytochemistry 2013; 95: 408-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.07.029Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 41. Amzad Hossain M, Salehuddin SM, Kabir MJ et al. Sinensetin, rutin, 30-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 40-tetramethoxyflavone and rosmarinic acid contents and antioxidative effect of the skin of apple fruit. Food Chem 2009; 113:185-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.085CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 42. Obiang-Obounou BW, Ryu GH. The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts. Food Chem 2013;141:4166-4170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.129CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 43. Viswanad V, Aleykutty NA, Zacharia SM et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Samadera indica using In vitro models. Phcog J 2011;3(23):85-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.5530/pj.2011.23.13 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2014-12-30

Published in Print: 2014-12-01


Citation Information: Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis, ISSN (Online) 2217-2521, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/afmnai-2014-0026.

Export Citation

© Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in