Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Agricultural Engineering

4 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Effect of Cutting Speed and Depth on the Course of Resultant Force Acting on a Cultivator Tine

Zygmunt Owsiak / Krzysztof Lejman / Krzysztof Pieczarka / Tomasz Sekutowski
Published Online: 2016-06-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/agriceng-2016-0013


The paper presents research results on the effect of cutting depth and speed on the resultant force tilt angle and location of its application point on a flexible tine ended with a cultivator point. The studies were carried out in field conditions in sandy clay with the gravimetric moisture of 11.2% and volumetric density of 1470 kg·m−3. Tines whose flexibility coefficient was 0.0061; 0.0711; 0.0953 and 0.1406 m·kN−1 were used. It was found out that that the resultant force tilt angle raises at the increase of the cutting speed and drops at the increase of depth but this angle and its gradient at the increase of the cutting depth grow along with the decrease of the flexibility coefficient of tines. The increase of the cutting speed and depth causes the decrease of both the distance of the resultant force application point on the tool from the bottom of a furrow and a proportion of this parameter to the cutting depth. The courses of the distance of the resultant force application point on the tool from the bottom of a furrow and courses of proportion of this parameter to the cutting depth as the function of cutting do not differ significantly for tines with higher flexibility coefficients while for the most rigid tine values of these parameters and their gradients are higher. All obtained courses of the analysed values as a function of depth and cutting speed were described with regression equations.

Keywords: soil; spring tine of a cultivator; resultant force


  • ASABE, (2006). S313.3FEB04. Soil Cone Penetrometer. Mich: ASABE, St. Joseph, 902-904.Google Scholar

  • Bernacki, H. (1981). Teoria i konstrukcja maszyn rolniczych. Tom 1, część I i II. PWRiL, Warszawa. ISBN 83-09-00419-2.Google Scholar

  • Berntsen, R., Berre, B., Torp, T,, Aasen, H. (2006). Tine forces established by a two-level model and the draught requirement of rigid and flexible tines. Soil and Tillage Research, 90, 230-241.Google Scholar

  • Chen, Y., Cavers, C., Tessier, S., Monero, F., Lobb, D. (2005). Short-term tillage effects on soil cone index and plant development in a poorly drained, heavy clay soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 82, 161-171.Google Scholar

  • Friedman, M. (1973). Zemedelske stroje I. Teorie a vypoczet. Statni zemedelske nakladatelstvi, Praha.Google Scholar

  • Godwin, R.J., Spoor, G. (1977). Soil failure with narrow tines. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 22, 213-228.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Godwin, R.J. (2007). A review of the effect of implement geometry on soil failure and implement forces. Soil & Tillage Research, 97, 331-340.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Godwin, R.J., O’Dogherty, M.J. (2007). Integrated soil tillage force prediction models. Journal of Terramechanics, 44, 3-14.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kuczewski, J. (1981). Elementy teorii i obliczeń maszyn rolniczych. Skrypt SGGW, Warszawa. ISBN 83-00-01721-6.Google Scholar

  • Lejman, K., Owsiak, Z., Pieczarka, K., Molendowski, F. (2015). Metodyczne aspekty wyznaczania parametrów przebiegu siły wypadkowej działającej na sprężynowe zęby kultywatora. Inżynieria Rolnicza, 4(156), 69-78.Google Scholar

  • McKyes, E., Maswaure, J. (1997). Effect of design parameters of flat tillage tools on loosening of a clay soil. Soil & Tillage Research, 43, 195-204.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Onwualu, A.P., Watts, K.C. (1998). Draught and vertical forces obtained from dynamic soil cutting by plane tillage tools. Soil & Tillage Research, 48, 239-253.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Owsiak, Z., Lejman, K., Wołoszyn, M. (2006). Wpływ zmienności głębokości pracy narzędzia na opory skrawania gleby. Inżynieria Rolnicza, 4(79), 45-53.Google Scholar

  • Pabin, J., Włodek, S., Biskupski, A. (2007). Fizyczne właściwości gleby i plony roślin w różnych systemach uprawy roli i ogniwach zmianowań. Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych, 520, 655-661.Google Scholar

  • Piotrowska, E. (2003). Badania filmowe bryły glebowej odkształcanej przez wąskie narzędzie uprawowe. Inżynieria Rolnicza, 11(53), 173-178.Google Scholar

  • Przybył, J., Kowalik, I., Dach, J., Zbytek, Z. (2009). Analiza jakości pracy agregatów do uprawy przedsiewnej. Journal of Research and Application in Agriculture Engineering, 4(54), 62-68.Google Scholar

  • Talarczyk, W., Zbytek, Z., Gośliński, M. (2011). Ocena narzędzia przedniego stosowanego w zestawie uprawowo-siewnym. Journal of Research and Application in Agriculture Engineering, 4(56), 165-170.Google Scholar

  • Topakci, M., Celik, H.K., Canakci, M., Rennie, A.E.W., Akinci, I., Karayel, D. (2010). Deep tillage tool optimization by means of finite element method: Case study for a subsoiler tine. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 2(8), 531-536.Google Scholar

  • Ucgul, M., Fielke, J.M., Saunders, C. (2014). Three-dimensional discrete element modelling of tillage: Determination of a suitable contact model and parameters for a cohesionless soil. Biosystems Engineering, 121, 105-117.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wheeler, P.N., Godwin, R.J. (1996). Soil dynamics of single and multiple tines at speed up to 20 km/h. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 63, 243-250.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-08-01

Revised: 2015-09-01

Accepted: 2015-10-01

Published Online: 2016-06-18

Published in Print: 2016-04-01

Citation Information: Agricultural Engineering, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 127–136, ISSN (Online) 2449-5999, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/agriceng-2016-0013.

Export Citation

© 2016 Zygmunt Owsiak et al., published by De Gruyter Open. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in