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Cadmium Toxicity Revisited: Focus on Oxidative Stress Induction and Interactions with Zinc and Magnesium

Vesna Matović1 / Aleksandra Buha1 / Zorica Bulat1 / Danijela Đukić-Ćosić1

Department of Toxicology "Akademik Danilo Soldatović", Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia1

This content is open access.

Citation Information: Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 65–76, ISSN (Print) 0004-1254, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-62-2011-2075, March 2011

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Cadmium Toxicity Revisited: Focus on Oxidative Stress Induction and Interactions with Zinc and Magnesium

Discovered in late 1817, cadmium is currently one of the most important occupational and environmental pollutants. It is associated with renal, neurological, skeletal and other toxic effects, including reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. There is still much to find out about its mechanisms of action, biomarkers of critical effects, and ways to reduce health risks. At present, there is no clinically efficient agent to treat cadmium poisoning due to predominantly intracellular location of cadmium ions. This article gives a brief review of cadmium-induced oxidative stress and its interactions with essential elements zinc and magnesium as relevant mechanisms of cadmium toxicity. It draws on available literature data and our own results, which indicate that dietary supplementation of either essential element has beneficial effect under condition of cadmium exposure. We have also tackled the reasons why magnesium addition prevails over zinc and discussed the protective role of magnesium during cadmium exposure. These findings could help to solve the problem of prophylaxis and therapy of increased cadmium body burden.

Još o toksičnosti kadmija - s posebnim osvrtom na nastanak oksidacijskoga stresa i na interakcije s cinkom i magnezijem

Iako je otkriven tek 1817. godine, kadmij je trenutačno jedan od najvažnijih onečišćivača životne i radne sredine. Štetno djeluje na bubrege, živčani sustav, kosti, reproduktivni sistem, a ima i genotoksične i karcinogene efekte. Nužna su dalja istraživanja vezana za mehanizme njegove toksičnosti, biomarkere efekata, kao i načine smanjenja rizika za zdravlje. Osim toga, do danas nije otkriven agens efikasan u terapiji trovanja kadmijem s obzirom na to da je kadmij intracelularni kation. U ovom radu dan je sažet pregled važnih mehanizama toksičnosti kadmija, kao što su nastanak oksidativnog stresa i interakcije s esencijalnim elementima, cinkom i magnezijem, na osnovi dostupnih literaturnih podataka, kao i naših ispitivanja koja upućuju na to da povećani unos navedenih esencijalnih elemenata pokazuje pozitivne efekte pri ekspoziciji kadmiju. Obrazložena je prednost suplementacije magnezijem pred suplementacijom cinkom i razmatrana preventivna uloga magnezija pri intoksikaciji kadmijem. Ovi su rezultati doprinos rješavanju problema profilakse i terapije trovanja kadmijem.

Keywords: carcinogenicity; chelation therapy; dietary supplementation; essential elements

Keywords: esencijalni elementi; karcinogenost; kelatna terapija; suplementacija

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